MDIS Theses and Dissertations (2021)

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    An Analysis of the role of the police service in counterterrorism operations in Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2021) Waringa, James Njoroge
    This study explored the role of the Kenya Police Service in counterterrorism operations, specifically examining and analyzing the factors underlying the continued terrorism attacks in Kenya despite various counterterrorism measures by the government. It equally examined and analyzed the effects of intra and inter-institutional coordination and intelligence sharing constraints on police counterterrorism operations in Kenya. Using quasi-experimental research designs, the study examined the place of strategic intelligence and coordination issues in respect of counterterrorism operations by the Kenya Police. Kenya continues to suffer terrorist attacks associated with the Al Qaeda and its affiliate networks in the region, particularly the Al Shabab group, which is mainly domiciled in Somalia. These attacks have left hundreds of people dead and scores injured, especially following Kenya’s military intervention in Somalia beginning in October 2011. Operationalizing the variant of Contingency Theory, the study argues that the continuity of terror attacks is a function of Al Shabab’s ability to protect and deny internal security agencies access to their operational intelligence. It equally argues that the inability of the police to counter terror attacks is a function of absence of enhanced intra and inter institutional coordination and cooperation in intelligence sharing. This study finds that there is a lapse of coordination and cooperation in information sharing within and among the state's national security agencies. Consequently, this study gives recommendations for a pragmatic counterterrorism strategy for the National Police Service in Kenya.
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    National security implications of human trafficking and migrant smuggling in Kenya (2009-2019)
    (Strathmore University, 2021) Nzioka, Peter Samson
    Using the Rational Choice Variant of Gary Becker as its conceptual tool of analysis, this study sets out to; firstly examine and analyze factors underlying the increase in human trafficking and migrant smuggling in Kenya. Secondly, to examine and analyze the implications of human trafficking and migrant smuggling on Kenya’s National Security. And thirdly, to proffer research-based policy alternatives to address the same. A descriptive research design consisting of both qualitative and quantitative approaches are converged to operationalize this study. The study was done in Kenya with the focus being five entry/exit points for migrants namely JKIA, Busia, Lungalunga, Moyale, and Namanga. The choice of these points of entry/exit was guided by Kenya’s categorization as a source, transit hub, and destination point for trafficked and smuggled persons. To obtain the sample size, a purposive sampling technique was employed to identify participants for this study. A sample size of 120 security personnel was used. Both primary and secondary data was collected using a set of questionnaire and interview schedule respectively. Quantitative data was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies, while content analysis was used in analyzing qualitative data. This was done by centralizing the analysis around certain themes. The study contends that the increase in human trafficking and migrant smuggling is a function of the convergence of various negative and positive interests of human traffickers, migrant smugglers, and their victims. These convergences also underpin national security threats resident in multiple security sectors. This study recommends that; a review of the legal framework on human trafficking and migrant smuggling to make these crimes capital offences should be done; a specialized Anti-human trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Unit within the Multi-Agency framework tasked with the enforcement and implementation of counter-trafficking policies and regulations be established; security surveillance and patrols at the points of entry and exit should be intensified; reporting of cases of human trafficking and migrant smuggling be made easier by providing toll-free anonymous call numbers; anti-corruption mechanisms at points of entry and exit be integrated; regular training of government officials on the morphing nature of human trafficking and migrant smuggling trends be carried out; and, vulnerable persons in the society should be empowered through equitable distribution of wealth and creation of sustainable employment opportunities to alleviate poverty.
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    The Dynamics of private security provisioning in homeland security in Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2021) Mauti, Jared Nyakambi
    Using Robert Dahl’s Pluralism theory, this study responds to three questions; how does proliferation of private security entities and consequent relational dynamics affect homeland security provisioning in Kenya? What are the legal implications inherent in this proliferation? How should the regulatory design and framework of private security provisioning fit into the realm of homeland security architecture? It sets out three objectives; examine and analyze the impact of proliferation of private security entities on security provisioning in Kenya, examine and analyze existing policy and legal frameworks and its implications in private security provisioning, and proffer research-based regulatory framework for private security entities in homeland security architecture. The study uses a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. Using a combination of both primary data, through questionnaires and interview schedules, and secondary data involving content analysis of various publications, the study contends that the crisis of security provisioning is a function of uncoordinated proliferation of private security providers exacerbated by unresolved gaps and weaknesses underpinning the regulatory framework. The study therefore recommends for the development of a written National Security Policy to coordinate and anchor security provisioning Policies and resultant legal frameworks to operationalize private security provisioning in Kenya.
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    A Critical analysis of the National intelligence community in the war on terrorism in Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2021) Ainea, Judy Marebe
    There have been concerted efforts by the National intelligence community to fight terrorism in Kenya in the wake of rampant terrorist attacks. This study sets out to critically analyses the role of the intelligence community in the war on terrorism in Kenya. Its objectives are to examine the effectiveness of the intelligence community to combat terrorism in Kenya; establish the causes of intelligence community failures in the fight against terrorism in Kenya and; suggest ways in which the efficacy of intelligence community in Kenya can be enhanced. Based on the rational choice theory, this study adopts the exploratory and descriptive research designs. The target population is the personnel employed in the security agencies intelligence agencies and intelligence communities: Kenya defense Forces (KDF), Kenya Police services, military intelligence services and national intelligence services in Kenya estimated at 400 persons. Out of these, a sample of 90 persons were obtained proportionately using the purposive sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data collection techniques were employed. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data. Additionally, relevant secondary data was obtained from reports, journals and books among publications. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in data analysis. In this regard, the data collected from questionnaires were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. This was done through the help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. The findings were presented in charts and tables. Conversely, qualitative data analysis was guided by Miles and Huberman’s framework of thematic analysis. The method suggests the use of four critical steps intended for extracting meanings from data collected from participants. The findings show that there were improvements in intelligence gathering in Kenya. However, the efficiency with which the intelligence community operated was challenged by poor coordination mechanisms. Bureaucracies also challenged information dissemination within the counterterrorism agencies and organizations. There were limitations related to missed or delayed signals. Lack of sufficient numbers of intelligence personnel also limited the efficiency of the intelligence community. Corruption also created security vulnerabilities since it lead to compromise of intelligence operations. Poor interagency cooperation has also limited the capacity of the intelligence community. Poor regional and international policy frameworks mean that joint counterterrorism initiatives could not be implemented effectively. Inadequate financing and training also limited the responsiveness of the intelligence community to the dynamism of terrorism. The challenge of training has also negatively impacted on the intelligence end product which has as a result compromised counterterrorism operations. Challenges related to local legislation means that the intelligence community operated in a vacuum. Several recommendations were made. These include: regular training to of the intelligence community; strengthening cooperation with regional and international intelligence organizations; enacting facilitative laws to limit legal constraints; implementing interagency cooperation strategies; ensuring adequate financing; deploying enough personnel and establishing a terrorism research department.
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    The Enforcement aspects of combating money laundering in Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2021) Chelimo, Fredrick Suter
    Over time the rule of law has been formulated and used to regulate human conduct including discouraging the commission of crime. The purpose of the study is therefore to assess law enforcement aspects of combating money laundering in Kenya. This was done by exploring the regulatory and institutional mechanisms as key enforcement variables. Essentially, it is the mandate of the enforcement agencies to ensure that anti-money laundering (AML) policy is implemented. In spite of this, it still remains difficult to quantify the effectiveness, costs, consequences and challenges of enforcing AML regulations. The study is based on three objectives which are to establish the effects of anti-money laundering legal frameworks, anti-money laundering preventive measures, institutional capacities, and international coordination on combating money laundering in Kenya. To achieve these objectives, the study used descriptive study design and questionnaires to collect data from a sample size of hundred and five (105) employees working in the five purposively identified lead AML enforcement agencies within Nairobi City County. Eighty-eight targeted respondents managed to return filled questionnaires; leading to a response rate was 83.8%. Four institutions dealing with AML combined constituted the sample frame of the study. The study utilized stratified sampling to attain representation from three cadres of employees, that is, the management, supervisory and junior employees. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Equally, Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis and results presented in themes and prose format. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS for both inferential and descriptive statistics, and presented through charts, figures and tables for ease of understanding. The results indicate that the four variables of Money laundering framework, Anti-money laundering preventive measures, Institutional capacity, and international cooperation were associated with a 58.0% positive change in the state of combating money laundering in Kenya. Further, the four independent variables were significant predictors of combating money laundering in Kenya. Changes in money laundering framework (p-value of 0.034), anti-money laundering preventive measures (p-value of 0.014), and institutional capacity (p-value of 0.001) and, international cooperation (p-value of 0.00) were significant predictors of the state of combating money laundering in Kenya. Recommendations were that the government needed to strengthen regulation and enforcement mechanism of combating money laundering in Kenya. Secondly, there is a need to craft a clear coordination framework free of bureaucratic inconveniences to enable harmonious working relationship among the government bodies responsible for the implementation of the AML policy in Kenya. Thirdly, policymakers need to enact a policy that provide for specific incentives that can cheer up FI and the DNFIB to effectively make STRs and SARs as envisaged. Other recommendations are expounded in the study.