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- ItemICT infrastructure, applications, society and education(Strathmore University Press (SUP), 2007) Kashorda, Meoli; Nyandiere, Clement; Acosta, FreddieProceedings of the Annual Strathmore University ICT Conference 2006.
Contents: Welcoming address by Vice-Chancellor ; Improving Access to Technology for Economic Development; Investing in Wireless Communications: POPOTE Wireless Case; Emerging Cellular Technologies and the Future; Increasing Role of Computer-Based Information Systems in the Management of Higher Education Institutions; Government Services Online: Report Card; Spreading the ICT Gospel With Cisco Network Academy Program; e-Banking in Kenya: Practical lessons to be drawn from Commercial Bank of Africa; Emerging Trends in Information and Communications Technology Education in Kenyan Universities; Developments in Participatory Methods for Software Design and Development; Semantic Web Technology: The Foundation For Future Enterprise Systems; Information Technologies for Disadvantaged Communities; ICT Trends and Their Role in Shaping the Media Industry in Kenya
- ItemAnalyzing ethics at the university level and its effective contribution to nation-building(Strathmore University, 2011) Musya, Mercy; Gathua, Peter; Ngeene, DuncanEducation is a basic human need. Not only should it contribute to the growth of an individual’s knowledge but also their character. Education unlocks peoples’ potential and it is in this way that knowledge is power. Individuals especially in third world countries have a stereotypical view of the purpose, quality and quantity of education required as a basic foundation for life. Given the changes and developments in the world, man is coming to the realization that the basic educational system needs to be adjusted accordingly. An education system is inadequate if it teaches young people how to make a living but doesn't teach them integrity and values. The current education system in Kenya has produced a vast population knowledgeable but unable to efficiently apply that knowledge into relevant skill so as to contribute positively to nation-building. Likewise, when individuals are knowledgeable and skilled but lacking in or oblivious of the need for human dignity, education is incomplete. Therefore, various adjustments must be made to the system to increase its efficiency and this research tries to establish to what extent ethics is instilled at the University level of education. The research methods to be used will include primary methods such as one on one interviews with current and former university students and secondary techniques such as academic articles and journals. To guarantee authenticity of the data acquired a comparison will be carried out to check for consistency of the different individual opinions we receive. Also, the use of academic articles and journals as a reference will guarantee this paper’s validity. The weight of this research is basically finding out to what extent the education system at the university level promotes ethics in the society and how this plays a role of ethics in Nation Building. Based on the research, solutions and recommendations are being looked into for adjusting the university system and its curriculum in order for it to be more cogent and fulfill its purpose of turning scholars into complete beings with knowledge, wisdom, skill and dignity. The research also involves implementing one of the recommendations and describing the outcomes (positive, neutral or negative) and giving reasons based on these outcomes. Based on this experience, relevant and innovative adjustments will be made to the previous recommendations. This study is to be a conclusive and helpful contribution to the current education system; relevant and applicable in relevant institutions.
- ItemDevolution and nation building in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2011) Mulwa, Koki; Chege, Bernard N.; Nabulumbi, Lisa W.One of the key reforms of the constitution is the establishment of devolution through the country’s government. It is in the current constitution and will only come into effect after the next general elections, when the county assemblies and governors will be elected. (Ghai, Y& Ghai, J,) In this paper we have talked about devolution and related it to the dignity of the human person. First we have given a definition for devolution as per the Kenyan context. Secondly, we will look at how the United Kingdom has being impacted since devolution was enforced. Thirdly, we looked at three aspects of devolution; objects and principles of a devolved government, financial aspect of devolution and the gender aspect of devolution. We came to the basis of these aspects by looking at how the common “mwananchi” will be affected by them. Lastly, we have given a summary of the responses we got from conducting an interview. We interviewed our fellow students and lecturer’s on their thoughts about devolution being implemented in Kenya. This includes the positive and negative effects of devolution and whether the country can afford this form of government.
- ItemEthical leadership practice: the foundation of political and economic development in Kenya.(Strathmore University, 2011) Minja, DavidThe subject of ethical practices in Kenya has been a hot one for the last two decades. Unethical practices in organizations and at the political arena have been widely reported in the wake of many high-profile management and financial scandals. Even with the establishment of the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission and laws and regulations aimed at curbing corruption, the situation has not improved significantly. Leaders are coming under increasing scrutiny because of the role they play in managing ethical conduct and modelling ethical behaviour. Failure of political leaders and executives to provide moral leadership has led to citizens being disappointed and national goals remaining largely unmet. Increasingly so, recent debates about issuance of citizenship certificates may leave many citizens disenfranchised; all of which have a major influence on political and economic development. Theory and research suggest that leaders should, and do, influence ethical behaviour. This paper explores theoretical arguments why leaders should play an important role of influencing ethical behaviour and why it is imperative for them to model the desired behaviour. The paper explores ethical practices from Aristotle’s perspective, cognitive moral development and social learning theories. This paper also tries to argue that laws alone cannot ‘convert’ the society that has developed and perfected the art of unethical practices. A new way of thinking is necessary, that will involve and empower everyone to start thinking and behaving in an ethical way. The paper therefore provides a prescriptive model of addressing ethical dilemmas in the public service in order to promote nation building. Several recommendations applicable not only to the public service but also to other Kenyan sectors have been made and it is believed that if adopted will go a long way in transforming leaders and followers into ethically responsible people who will foster nation building. The work of transformation begins with leaders who are themselves transformed and in turn mentor others to produce the desired behaviour. In this way, political and economic development in Kenya will cease to be a mirage.
- ItemUnderstanding global policy and funding to build new proposals for person centered solutions(Strathmore University, 2012) Halpine, Anna“[r]eproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the Reproductive health freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of birth control which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health-care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.”“That definition (found in paragraph 7.2 of the Program of Action) does not include any reference to abortion at all. On the contrary, rather than imposing on any State an obligation to legalize or de-penalize abortion, the ICPD Program of Action explicitly Reproductive health recognizes the sovereignty of states to legislate on that matter”. – notes on Article 7, SJA
- ItemTourism outreach to end demand for ivory and save elephants(Strathmore University, 2014) Kahumbu, PaulaKenya‟s new Wildlife Conservation and Management Act came into effect on January 10th 2014 and it bites. Passengers in possession of any amount of ivory, even earrings, face up to life imprisonment. Kenya is world‟s gateway into Africa, and is also the world‟s hub for transiting of ivory. WildlifeDirect, a Kenyan NGO is committed to saving elephants by ending the poaching, stopping the trafficking of ivory and stopping the buying of ivory through the “Hands Off Our Elephants” campaign (HOOE). HOOE is an award winning innovative communications and outreach campaign to achieve behaviour change by mobilizing of all sectors of society to support elephant conservation. Realizing that many international travellers arrested for possession of ivory and other wildlife products in Nairobi are largely ignorant of the impact of their purchase on elephants, and the severe legal consequences in Kenya, WildlifeDirect has partnered with tourism, travel and transport stakeholders through responsible messaging to travellers. Initiatives being rolled out include clever branding of aircraft and other vehicles, check-in questions, messages on boarding passes, websites and social media and inflight information. The campaign will reach millions of passengers and travellers in East Africa and it will achieve five things; Prevention of wildlife crimes, create awareness about the plight of elephants, enlist passengers in conservation initiatives, lead the world in responsible travel and trigger global replication.
- ItemTourism resource management and community participation - the case of Naboisho conservancy in Masai Mara Kenya(Strathmore University, 2014) Gona, Judy KepherKenya‟s tourism resources are diverse. Wildlife is one of the major attractions. Over the years, there has been ambiguity in the management of this resource. Traditionally, the state has protected wildlife through the protected area approach. This is in spite of studies that show that 70% of wildlife lives outside protected areas in private and community land. Legislation has played a key role in promoting the stand of the state in management of wildlife. The Wildlife legislation, for example, perceives wildlife as a national resource owned by the state irrespective of where it occurs. The state is therefore the owner/manager by default. The state has equated ownership to right of exclusive protection and management. Over the last 10 years, through the works of civil society communities that live with 70% of wildlife on their land have become aware of the benefits and opportunities for managing wildlife. They have changed tactic. Instead of confronting the state, they have organised themselves and formed community wildlife conservancies, to manage and benefit from wildlife without ownership. Naboisho conservancy is one such community conservancy. This paper aims to demonstrate the significance of all stakeholder participation in management, ownership notwithstanding, and why law and practice should be harmonised. The paper will further suggest major principles behind management that generate benefits using the community conservancy model.
- ItemSustainability in ecotourism with special emphasis on wildlife conservation(Strathmore University, 2014) Rathore, AshokEcotourism is carefully traveling to fragile, pristine and usually protected areas through low impact means and on a small scale. The purpose of Ecotourism is to educate the traveler, provide funds for conservation, economically benefit the local communities and encourage stronger relations between different cultures. However, due to a lack in international regulation, in many locations the wildlife is not being adequately protected. According to the International Ecotourism Society, ecotourism companies should include the following principles to protect the host country's wildlife and environment: minimize their impact, build awareness, provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts, and provide direct financial benefits for conservation. When the principles of ecotourism are applied, then the local community benefits financially so that the conservation efforts of its wildlife and environment are funded for future protection. The principle "export" for 83 percent of developing countries is the tourism of its wildlife in their natural environment, which is the second most important source of income for the world's 40 poorest countries.
- ItemCommunity participation in tourism development : a case study of Ada(Strathmore University, 2014) Dodoo, JacobThis paper examines the effectiveness of community participation in tourism development and introduces the community based-tourism relationship model as applied to a case in Ada, Ghana. The application demonstrates that the model is a tool for successful development of sustainable tourism. It focuses on the “circulation mechanism” that connects community resources and extra-community stakeholders through community-based intermediaries, and a “balancing mechanism” that considers the existence value and economic value, supplemented by the community-based intermediary‟s functions to transfer financial and technology capital from tourist sources. Other researchers including Butler, 1998, suggest that community-based tourism development may provide an opportunity for a sustainable tourism industry. An empirical study was conducted with descriptive and exploratory survey adopted for this study. Primary data for the study was obtained through structured and unstructured interviews with locals, tourists, traditional council and district officials. 65% of the respondent indicated that tourism development in the area has a positive impact on job creation and it should be inclusive of the area inhabitants. Community-based tourism is seen as an all-inclusive bottom-up approach to tourism planning and development that incorporates local entrepreneurs in the planning process, in a meaningful way. Collaboration amongst all key stakeholders is imperative for creating a sustainable enabling environment for all inclusive participation in community based tourism.
- ItemSustainability in tourism : making tourism count to communities, ecosystems and businesses(Strathmore University, 2014) Serugo, Joseph; Akello, JacquelineEcotourism is a nature based tourism which is ecologically friendly and gives benefits directly to the community. It involves learning about nature, the people and their interactions with nature. Biodiversity refers to all biological creatures- plants and animals ranging from microscopic to gigantic organisms like whales. Ecotourism became pronounced from the 1980s following disillusionment by tourists with the way tourism revenues were being used by governments which did not care about the welfare of communities adjacent to protected areas. In contrast to mass tourism, ecotourism not only protects nature but also respects and appreciates communities‟ ways of living. East African governments emphasized creation of protected areas for biodiversity conservation. Soon due to human population increase these became islands without any connectivity. Protected area systems account for only about 10% of the land and water surfaces leaving more than 75% of the biodiversity including endangered species in community lands. While legislative and policy frameworks are conducive for conservation efforts by communities, there are inadequate or no accompanying incentives. Efforts have been made with varying degrees of success in Wildlife ranching, wildlife farming, and recently Agro-tourism. The investments required in Agro and Ecotourism are not affordable by most communities who harbor biodiversity on their land while bearing the losses of crop and livestock to wild animals. Benefits are limited and take long to be realized. Ecotourism and Agro-tourism given priority by the various players is the answer for long term biodiversity conservation in East Africa.
- ItemChallenges of biodiversity conservation through ecotourism(Strathmore University, 2014) Pramod, RamtekeOver the past few decades ecotourism has emerged as one of India's fastest growing industries, thanks to its rich biological and cultural diversity and heritage. Historically, the increase of nature based and ecotourism is largely a result of the increase in awareness of the plight of the planet's diminishing biological diversity and a reaction against mass tourism and its demonstrative lack of care of conservation issues. In India integration of biodiversity conservation and tourism development has emerged as an important national objective, with strong support by government, industry and the community. Ecotourism has a potentially vital role to play in conservation by generating economic incentives for nature conservation, and a stimulus for an environmental ethic that goes beyond ecotourism. However, the central challenge of ecotourism is to develop and manage the tourism in a way which conserves its natural resource and built heritage base, and minimizes any negative environmental, societal, and cultural impacts. The greening of tourism is essential for the ecological and sociological advancement and sustainability of the industry. The applicability of tourism as a tool for biodiversity conservation and improving economic status of indigenous communities in India is discussed here.
- ItemResearch and education for sustainable development, the Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) roles (Case study of RWANDA)(Strathmore University, 2014) Gaparayi, GaspardBy the time being, Rwanda has embarked on public university reform of ``One university system``. This requires means and methods in order to conserve and protect the acquired progresses, but also in order to meet the challenges the society is facing in development. In its triple missions of teaching, learning, research and community outreach, broadly, universities in this country must reinforce research so as to innovate and orient Rwanda society. Thus, Universities and higher learning institutions must play a very big role in promoting sustainable development considering their place in research and modern education. Universities must shape education for a changing world trough specifically new learning theories that recognize basically that cognitive, cultural and social dimension are important in education process and balance between education for sustainability and environmental sustainability. Thus the system of knowledge transfer at university level should give enough emphasis to reflexive and transformative knowledge and avoid the image of historical alienation inherited from colonialists where scientific truth is largely dominated by positivist and theoretical approaches of knowledge and reality. Because working towards sustainable development seems to require substantial reorientation of university research program that focuses to dynamic interactions between nature and the society. It requires a new manner of conducting research activities using a full commitment to seeking solutions to sustainable development challenges on one hand, but also re-think a type of research methodology and understand how research in general is thought, conceptualized and implemented. The paper is intended to highlight the main problems the HLIs in RWANDA are facing in research field and give tentative solutions in order to contribute to research for sustainable development. As far as Education is concerned, the paper seeks in seeing how research is delivered and show the good methodologies to contribute to a society knowledge and competences based. The approaches considered are both multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary in mobilizing the scientific community to integrate different knowledge systems. Here, researchers should look first of all to the logical and realistic origin of the activity they are conducting and gain a better perspective of the research priorities in contemporary contexts. The RWANDA case study will be an illustrative example of a type of research that seeks to point out the main challenges faced by third world countries, but also in a manner that guarantee the success of new approaches and best practices while well oriented and managed even during reform periods in tertiary education in order to promote sustainable development.
- ItemCommunity participation in tourism : the case of Lewa.(Strathmore University, 2014) Munyiri, EstherThe local community is one of the most important stakeholders in tourism development. However, in most instances, private benefit of conservation to individuals, households and even entire community are not made clear or may be non-existent. This research draws on social exchange theory, to examine the level of participation by communities around Lewa, a private conservancy in Northern Kenya. Lewa presents a successful model that has won the community support. Evidence shows that local people around Lewa participates in tourism through policy and planning process; benefits sharing and owning community projects. Education assistance is seen to be the greatest help that the community around Lewa gets from the conservancy. Other assistance relates to healthcare, water provision, credit facilities and grazing. The research agrees with the principles of the social exchange theory, since the relationship between the evaluation of costs, benefits and support for tourism was substantiated. In general, there is a direct relationship between positive impact variables and participation variables (benefits sharing; involvement in decision-making as well as availability of community projects initiated by tourism). These participation variables are, in addition, directly related to support for tourism. As a result, the community values wildlife for its economic benefit.
- ItemInnovation inequality within service sectors : preliminary evidence from the hospitality sector in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2014) Oduori, FredrickLimited attention has been paid to the issue of NSD between sectors. To address this critique of the literature a comparative study of NSD strategy and process of the hospitality and financial sectors was conducted. The exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey-based methodology and case study strategy from 35 hotels. Three-stage sampling procedure was used in the study. Findings from empirical studies of the financial sector were used for comparison. The data showed that there is a significant difference in the implementation of the NSD strategy between chain and independent hotels. The type of management adopted by the establishment influenced the execution of NSD strategy. There is no evidence that the number of new services developed is related to hotel‟s star rating for hospitality sector. The analysis has been restricted to two sectors: hospitality and financial services. This suggests the need for further comparative studies of NSD between other service sectors. The findings of this research support the notion that some of the key NSD strategy and process may be common across all service sectors whereas others must be adjusted for sector variations. The insights from this study can help service managers to better understand innovation inequality within the service sectors and manage their NSD efforts in a sector-specific context. The findings of the research are expected to advance the understanding of service cataloging and their implications on a firm‟s NSD strategy and process.
- ItemCommunity participation towards ecotourism initiative in Binsar Wildlife sanctuary, India(Strathmore University, 2014) Bhalla, Priya; Prodyut, BhattacharyaThe community based ecotourism destination of Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the temperate broadleaved forest of the Middle Himalayas, the hill state of Uttarakhand, India. Ecotourism concept has been accepted by the governments of mountain states of India for its potential to provide livelihood opportunities in remote forest areas where otherwise industrial development has limited scope. The contribution of local communities in various ecotourism products – guided nature treks, birdwatching, Himalayan view and home-stays encourages their local guardianship for existing natural resources as heritage. The paper follows the premise that successful community based ecotourism initiatives in Binsar WLS are supported by the partnerships of communities with government, non-government and private sector like the Village Ways Company, forming crucial ecotourism stakeholders. More than a decade has passed since village level community based ecotourism began within and outside Binsar WLS. This study reviews and analyses its experiences in such six villages within the sanctuary. Analysis reveals that direct involvement of local community in day to day management and planning activities not only improves their skills and abilities but also assists in policy and decision making process, adding incentive to conserve its biodiverse rich Himalayan Landscape. Participating communities of Binsar enjoy decentralized system of power and responsibilities by active involvement in ecotourism product designing, developing benefits sharing model, identifying groups and establishing linkages with multi stakeholders. The study concludes that equitable benefit sharing, good governance, positive international relations and policy implementation are necessary in determining the overall practicality and sustainability of the ecotourism enterprise.
- ItemThe potential and challenges of promoting ecotourism in Kenya’s wetlands(Strathmore University, 2014) Irandu, EvaristusIn the last few decades, ecotourism has become well developed in many parts of the world. This is because it is increasingly viewed as a strategy for promoting sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. But, uncritical adoption of ecotourism as a development strategy may pose problems to pristine ecosystems such as wetlands. The aim of the paper is to assess the extent to which wetlands in the country can be exploited sustainably for ecotourism development. The challenges faced in promoting ecotourism in the delicate and sensitive ecosystems are also examined. The paper adopts an exploratory research design to assess the ecotourism potential in the wetlands. The methodology used comprised thorough literature search and review on potential of and development of ecotourism in other parts of the world. In-depth interviews with the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) officials and questionnaire survey on local communities and tourists were used. The four Ramsar sites in the country were used as case studies and information obtained from them was used to generalize about their potential for wetlands tourism. Several study visits were made to the selected Ramsar sites and observations made were recorded. The paper established that proper management of ecotourism in wetlands can bring many ecological and, socio-economic benefits to the local communities bordering the wetlands. Therefore, it is recommended that the county governments should put in place mechanism to ensure benefits from ecotourism trickle down to the local community.
- ItemCommunity based tourism initiatives and sustainable tourism development : a case of Mwaluganje Elephant sanctuary in Kwale County, Kenya.(Strathmore University, 2014) Musila, Paul; Kihima, Boniface; Kariuki, AlbertSustainable tourism refers to tourism development that meets the needs of present visitors and hosts while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It emphasizes the balance between environmental, social, and economic aspects of tourism. The development of Community Based Tourism Initiatives (CBTIs) in the 1990s was fundamentally based on their potential to enhance local community support for the conservation agenda. However, for the model to be sustainable, they must provide better returns environmentally, socially and economically to the community. The purpose of this conference paper is to illustrate whether Mwaluganje Elephant Sanctuary (MES) was sustainably developed, as a business entity and as a community initiative. The paper findings show that that the formation of MES led to a reduction in the quality and quantity of natural resource available to the landowners and that the current resources are unsustainable. Both plant and animal diversity/populations have been noted to have reduced in MES due to illegal logging, invasive species, poaching and browsing by elephants. Landowners are unsatisfied with the benefits derived from the MES, due to low income generation and economic linkages. The paper recommends that landowners be educated on alternative livelihoods, and tourism product improvement activities in MES be supported by the government and community be involved in their implementation.
- ItemEco-tourism as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in Rwanda(Strathmore University, 2014) Wanyera, FrancisBiological diversity or biodiversity is a term used to describe the variety of life on Earth. It includes plants, animals and other organisms. On the other hand ecotourism has emerged as one of the fastest-growing sectors of the tourism market, influenced primarily by public demand for undegraded environments. It is a form of alternative tourism which aims to achieve economic gain through biodiversity preservation. Not only that, ecotourism represents a small segment of nature-tourism that involves travel to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas. When planned properly, ecotourism can integrate conservation of biodiversity with socio-economic development of local communities. It implies that eco-tourism can minimize or even avoid most negative effects, if properly handled, managed and controlled. There is a broad consensus amongst researchers that eco-tourism can be used as a tool of biodiversity conservation but should be fully compatible with conservation goals. The aim of the study is to determine how eco-tourism can be used as a strategy for biodiversity conservation. It is not clear if ecotourism can have significant negative impacts when poorly planned and managed including severe environmental degradation. For the case of Rwanda the problem may be attributed to factors like high population pressure which has led to over-exploitation of biodiversity, expansion of intensive agriculture, deforestation, habitat loss and wetland degradation. The case study will be Volcanoes National Park and the research methodology will involve descriptive research design as well as use of qualitative and quantitative methods together with primary and secondary data. Data collection will be by use of questionnaires, interview guide and observation. Analysis of data will be done by use of statistical and explanatory methods.
- ItemTourism as a shared income earner : towards a viable community based tourism initiatives (CBTIs)(Strathmore University, 2014) Kihima, BonfaceTourism in Kenya has spurred sectorial growth in diverse sectors of the economy with concomitant increase in living standards and the overall economic growth and development. However, income from tourism has rarely been shared out proportionately. Of notable concern is the multiplication of Community Based Tourism Initiatives (CBTIs) which have been proposed largely as a means by which tourism‟s receipts can be shared out with the local community. Through several examples in Kenya, this paper shows that some of these projects experience low visitations and inadequate income generation. This paper therefore puts into perspective the whole aspect of community participation in tourism activities as a means sharing revenue. Secondly, it seeks to delve into the performance of these initiatives with regard to visitor numbers and income generation and thirdly, to identify the means through which tourism can become an effective means of sharing income with the local communities. The paper concludes that, the lack of link between community projects and tourist market remains a periodic challenge. Moreover, for the sustainability of these projects, such initiatives must be anchored in transparency and must gain confidence from all involved.
- ItemSustainability of park branding as a vision 2030 policy initiative in tourism sector in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2014) Maingi, Shem; Ondigi, Alice; Wadawi, Joseph KibuyeThis paper is concerned with discerning the efficacy of park branding as a tourism policy initiative and assessing its impacts in influencing tourist choice behaviour. The study was undertaken by way of a Survey of local and international travellers visiting a clustered sample of branded national parks in Kenya during the period August – December 2013. Data were analysed using Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) approach. A structural equations model (SEM) was estimated including latent constructs and their manifest indicators. On overall, the results were indicative of a need that the park brand‟s perception and personality and (or) uniqueness be revealed better through marketing concepts that are linked to historical, ecological, socio-cultural values of the park and the adjacent communities. In this way, the park‟s brand personality could positively influence choice behaviour of targeted market segments. The study contributes with significant policy implications on the way forward on sustainable park brand management and marketing as well as in understanding tourist choice behaviour in Kenyan context.