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- ItemA Descriptive study on nutrition knowledge and dietary practices among adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension at Kitale County Referral Hospital(Strathmore University, 2023) Kiarie, R. W.Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death, with most of these deaths occurring in low to middle- income countries (LMICs). Hypertension and diabetes are two of the four major NCDs, and they are often comorbidities, meaning that they occur at the same time. Morbidity and mortality is usually a result of long-term complications, and apart from medical therapy, these can be prevented by lifestyle interventions that include dietary modifications. This study sought to describe the nutrition knowledge and dietary practices of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The focus was on patients receiving care at the Kitale County Referral Hospital in Trans Nzoia County, and the study objectives were to (i) assess patients’ knowledge of dietary influence on diabetes and hypertension, (ii) assess sociocultural influences on patients’ dietary practices, (iii) assess patients’ willingness to change their dietary practices, and (iv) assess patient’s awareness of their dietary practices. The study was supported by the Social Cognitive Theory, which is premised upon the reciprocal interaction between individual, behavioural and environmental factors. These factors interact to formulate the control that an individual has over their illness, thereby influencing their motivation to perform self-care activities. This descriptive cross-sectional study utilized quantitative techniques by use of structured questionnaires as the main data collection instrument, in a target population of 973 and a sample size of 283 respondents. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS software, quantitative techniques were used to analyze the data, and descriptive techniques were applied to analyse the characteristics of the respondents. The following conclusions were made from the results: that majority of the participants understood the role of diet in the management of these two conditions; that some cultural practices posed a challenge to some participants, and that they had the family, spousal and social support they needed; that participants were willing to change their dietary practices and adhere to the recommended diet regimens; that most participants had received adequate nutrition education and counselling, however eating balanced diets was a challenge, they were not able to find all the foods they had been advised to eat, and they had to think about the cost of buying these foods. The study recommends sustained efforts in patient education, inclusion of experiential learning through the use of a hospital kitchen in order to contextualize use of locally available foods, and strategies to combat food insecurity especially among the ageing population in the county.
- ItemA Heuristic approach in examining the factors influencing additional voluntary contribution in the public sector in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2023) Mugi, C. W.There is prevailing confusion on the machinations of, and thus subscribership to pension funds in Kenya. The need for additional pension fund contributions is however apparent given insufficient funding towards catering to the aging population in the country. The current study aimed at shedding light on the factors affecting employee additional voluntary pension contribution in Kenya’s civil service. The objectives were as follows - to assess the effect of macroeconomic factors on employee additional voluntary pension contribution in Kenya's civil service, to assess the effect of industry-specific factors on employee additional voluntary pension contribution in Kenya's civil service and to assess the effect of personal factors on employee additional voluntary pension contribution in Kenya's civil service. A positivist approach employing a descriptive-correlational research design was applied. Data were collected, through a sampling approach, from all 22 ministries. Data on variables were collected through a structured questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis was then performed on the data after which an ordinal logistic regression approach was employed in determining the impact of macroeconomic factors, industry-specific factors, and personal factors, on additional voluntary pension contribution in Kenya’s civil service. Personal factors were deemed impactful to employee additional voluntary pension contributions whereas industry-specific factors and macroeconomic factors were not considered impactful at the 95% confidence level. Study findings on the first objective indicate that macroeconomic factors should not be considered in shaping incentive packages to bolster additional voluntary contribution to pension schemes. Findings from the second factor indicate a need for further investigation into potential context-specific attributes that account for the lack of impact of industry-specific factors. Finally, personal factors, as indicated in the third objective, should be considered as an isolated subgroup to create effective additional voluntary contribution incentives that leverage short-term thinking and financial factors.
- ItemA Hospital-based study on the application of blockchain technology on data sharing in oncology treatment and value-based care in Nairobi County, Kenya(Strathmore University, 2023) Saini, B. V.This study deals with the Blockchain Technology (BcT) application for decentralizing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) data to store patient information, including medical reports, to ensure improved patient care. EHRs are entirely controlled by hospitals instead of patients, which makes it more difficult for patients to seek medical care from other providers using their historical data. Patients are the data subjects and the primary owners of the data; therefore, they should have more say and checks on balances on the providers in how their data is being shared and used. The existing system of storing patient details depends on the organization's servers, thus the need for Blockchain using multi-cloud integration to achieve data interoperability. This study will adopt a quantitative research design whereby Blockchain will design an experiment to establish the relationship between patient perspective, level of trust, and transparency in data sharing for oncology patients and value-based care through processing and analyzing the quantitative data from the private cancer center. This study will adopt a quantitative with various stakeholders in Oncology in Kenya. It will also undertake surveys through questionnaires with the chief oncologist, chief medical officer, nurse manager, lab technician, researchers, and IT personnel. The results showed that blockchain technology has the potential to transform the way health records and data are kept and used to treat and care for oncology patients. By combining and integrating data from various sources, healthcare organizations can enhance value-based care, prioritizing patient outcomes and using data to drive decision-making. Furthermore, evidence-based decision-making by extracting data insights is important for designing data-driven healthcare systems. This study provides valuable insights for healthcare policymakers, providers, and researchers in Kenya and beyond. By prioritizing patient outcomes, evidence-based decision-making, and data protection, healthcare organizations can improve the quality of care they provide and, ultimately, the health outcomes of their patients. Furthermore, by leveraging blockchain technology and other innovative solutions, healthcare providers can improve their services' efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability.
- ItemA Qualitative examination of factors affecting the retention of doctors at the Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2023) Robai, C.Globally, governments struggle with providing quality, affordable healthcare to achieve Universal Healthcare Coverage (UHC). The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that motivation and retention of healthcare personnel, including doctors, is essential for achieving UHC. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) the largest referral hospital in Kenya offers specialised services but experiences shortages of various specialists and attributes this to high turnover due to the hospital's unattractive service model and poor working conditions in light of the lengthy training periods to acquire the necessary skills to provide such specialized healthcare. Therefore, there is a need to establish how to make the most of this rare resource, including how to work on the retention of doctors. This study is anchored on Herzberg's Two Factor Theory which argues that individuals are interested at two different areas of motivation. The study was based on Adam’s equity theory and Hezberg’s two-factor theory. An explorative qualitative study was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted among 24 doctors. Qualitative data was thematically analysed. The results showed that financial incentives affected their performance hence motivated them to stay. Financial incentives played a role on the decision to quit employment and recommended on the need to employ the contract doctors on permanent and pensionable terms. Career advancement opportunities were available for doctors employed on permanent and pensionable terms but not for medical officers on contractual terms of employment. This was a demotivating factor for the medical officers, increasing their turnover rates. Further, findings revealed that a good working condition at KNH a good working conditions at KNH was considered as one with good leadership, well structured shifts, availability of consumables, good equipment, positive culture and a good system. The working conditions had a huge effect on the motivation of doctors, retention and service delivery. All these conditions would enhance their retention in the hospital.
- ItemA Study of extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the job motivation of public sector health care workers in Nakuru County(Strathmore University, 2021) Githatu, Grace WatiriDiverse factors provide indicators of job motivation challenges amongst the healthcare workers. These factors include the high level of employee turnover. For example, in 2017, an estimated 700 doctors quit employment from government run hospitals Graham, 2018). Additionally, the Kenya Medical practitioners and Dentist Union (KMPDU) estimated that up to 2,300 doctors had left devolved sector employment between 2014 and 2016 for private sector engagement or further education abroad. Moreover, the various groups of the healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, and clinical officers have held numerous industrial strikes against their employer. Consequently, this study seeks to sh1dy the factors influencing the job motivation in the healthcare public sector. The study is based on Herzberg's 2-factor themy that splits factors affecting employee job motivation as extrinsic and motivating factors. The study used a descriptive research design and the target population was health workers in Nakuru County Public health facilities including doctors, clinical officers, laboratory technicians, pharmacists and nurses. The study population was 1756 respondents. The sample size of this study, using Taro Yamane's (1967) formula, was 326 respondents. The correlation between diverse factors and job motivation were examined. The study found a strong positive correlation between extrinsic factors and job motivation (r=0.633, p value =0.000). The study further found that there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between intrinsic factors and job motivation (r=0.795, p value =0.000). The regression analysis results revealed that a unit increase in extrinsic factors is associated with 0.318 increases in the job motivation levels with intrinsic factors kept constant. On the other hand, a unit increase in the intrinsic factors is associated with 0.596 increases in the job motivation levels with extrinsic factors kept constant. The study thus recommends that the intrinsic factors such be considered and factored within the instih1tions in order to improve on the job motivation levels. The intrinsic factors that had the lowest scores were salary paid being compensate with work done, dates of salary payments, salary increments levels, salary being competitive for tasks undertaken, supportive work environment for work station, and supervisor fairness levels.
- ItemA Study of on-time performance and causes of delays at Kenya airways(Strathmore University, 2011) Momanyi, Nester AsikoDeparture punctuality has increasingly gained attention over the last few years. This development is due to the realization what punctuality plays in the economics of the airline industry. Punctuality allows airlines to differentiate themselves from their competitors and holds a significant potential for cost savings. Kenya Airways (KQ) faced a lot of challenges with regard to punctuality from congested airport, persistent delays to flight cancellation. For this reason, KQ embarked on monitoring and improving its department performance. However, this was done at a central place with no detailed explanation of the root cause as on-time performance (OTP) performance remained low. This study aimed at establishing the OTP and the causes of delays at KQ and offer recommendations for improvement. It was a descriptive exploratory study where historical data was used to gather the relevant information. The study focused on on-time departure delays as this contributed to 95% of all KQ delays. A total of 379 flights were purposively and conveniently sampled. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Frequencies and percentages of the variables were calculated and presented in graphs and tabular form. Cross tabulations, x2 test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to examine relationships between variables. In addition, t-test was also used to 56% against a set target of 75% at p < 0.05. 60% of all delays were due to aircraft rotation which IAT A broadly classifies as reactionary type. 50% of all delays were attributed Boeing 737 type of aircraft. A high association (0.7) between delays attributed to sick crew and the month of the year- December. Domestic routes had a higher OTP as compared to the rest of the routes. The study recommended communicative, strategic, and operational techniques to enable KQ improve OTP. It further recommended the organization to consider incorporating "No frills" flights in some routes to have a competitive edge since already the routes OTP is within the set target of 75%.
- ItemA Study on the effect of Environmental Social and Governance adoption and bank characteristics on the financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda(Strathmore University, 2023) Awuor, L.Recent changes to corporate external reporting have sparked discussions around the need to evolve the practice. Reports by influential organizations suggest a need to incorporate forward-looking, nonfinancial, and soft information in financial reports for the benefit of all stakeholders, hence the emergence of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosure requirements. In Uganda, the law does not require institutions to disclose ESG matters; this has, however, not deterred its voluntary adoption by players in the commercial banking sector. Most banks are, however, likely to face hurdles in compliance, and the lack of guidance on ESG disclosures makes it difficult for stakeholders to compare results across early-adopting organizations. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of ESG adoption and bank characteristics on financial performance in Uganda. Data from published financials and structured questionnaires was used to collect data from all the licensed commercial banks between 2012-2021. By employing a multivariate regression analysis, the study established that ESG has a slightly positive effect on ROE and a slightly negative effort on ROA. However, both relationships are not statistically significant. Therefore, this study has not approved or disapproved of any of the theoretical expectations of the two hypotheses that ESG positively or negatively affects financial performance. The relationship with bank characteristics has also shown that profitability positively and significantly affects ROE and ROA. Finally, the findings indicate that having ESG adoption enforced by regulatory bodies (both financial sector regulators and accounting bodies) would be the most effective way to ensure that banks in Uganda observe sustainable practices. Future studies could extend the investigations to longer periods to establish whether the current findings hold over time. Future research could also examine specific ESG factors in isolation, say environmental, social, and governance, to investigate their individual effects on the financial performance of Ugandan commercial banks. Keywords: Environmental, social, ESG reporting, sustainability disclosure, sustainability reporting, bank-specific characteristics, and financial performance.
- ItemAccess to digital Nano-credit and the economic welfare: a case study of the low-income earners in Nairobi County(Strathmore University, 2020) Oyier, Jared OdhiamboDigital nano credit has gained prominence in Kenya because it serves the portion of the population which has not been reached effectively by commercial banks. The requirements for qualification are relatively relaxed as compared to those of the commercial banks; they also process loan request faster than most of the commercial banks. The justification for the study is premised on the fact that little attention has been devoted to study the impact of digital nano credit on the economic welfare of the recipients. Moreover, the existing empirical evidence is inconclusive in the direction of the association. Therefore, the study sought to find out the impact of access to digital nano credit on the economic welfare of the low-income earners in Nairobi. The supplementary objective of the study included; investigating the factors considered by digital nano credit companies before they issue digital-nano credit and how the usage of digital nano credit affect the economic welfare of the low-income earners. The study was anchored on three theories; the neoclassical theory of welfare, restriction of opportunities theory of poverty and the individual deficiency theory. The research used a cross-sectional survey research design to collect and analyze the data. Purposive stratified random sampling technique was used to select a representative sample size of 196 respondents from the population. Data was gathered through a structured questionnaire on a target sample size across the 17 sub-counties in Nairobi. The response rate for the study stood at 85.71%. The study found that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between economic welfare, access to digital nano credit, usage of digital nano-credit, the age of the breadwinner, household income. The size of the household was found not to have a negative relationship with economic welfare; however, this relationship was not statistically significant. The study also concluded that there is a constant level of economic welfare which is not affected by access to digital nano credit. The study also confirmed the assumptions of the neoclassical theory of welfare and restrictions of opportunities theory. However, the results of the study do not support the assumptions of the individual deficiency theory. The research, therefore, proposes that the government should regulate the issuance of digital nano credit and engage in market correction policies which can ensure that micro businesses are adequately supported to grow. Finally, the study suggests that an independent study should be undertaken to assess the impact of digital nano credit to the performance of sole proprietorship micro businesses.
- ItemAn Analysis of customer satisfaction with procurement practices in manufacturing state corporations in Nairobi(Strathmore University, 2017) Ogwang', JohnThis study analyzed customer satisfaction with procurement practices in manufacturing State Corporations in Nairobi. This study was informed by the contingency theory of management and the resource-based view of strategy. The study focused on six manufacturing State Corporations with headquarters in Nairobi. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Structured questionnaires were administered to 66 respondents drawn from procurement, user departments, and external institutional customers of manufacturing state corporations. Quantitative data collected was summarized through the use of frequency distributions and analyzed using chi-square tests to show relations between respondents' ratings on procurement practices and study variables. The findings show that staffing levels in manufacturing state corporations do not affect cost efficiency in procurement processes in manufacturing state corporations. Cost efficiency, time efficiency, and quality control efficacy in procurement practices are cross-cutting issues that affect all manufacturing state corporations in a similar manner. To a moderate extent, cost efficiency in procurement processes in manufacturing state corporations is affected by transparency in the processes, the wastage due to paperwork, transport, and postage costs, many failed/abortive procurement processes, and the lengthy processes of sourcing for suppliers. The major causes of delays in the procurement processes, in manufacturing state corporations, are lengthy procurement process, requisition having to wait to be signed by the head of department, understaffing of procurement department, negligence by staff, lack of finance, Staff with vested interests and delays in paying of suppliers. The main measure of quality in manufacturing state corporations is whether goods supplied meet specifications or not. Price plays a significant role in quality determination due to the practice of picking bidders with the lowest pricing. Correlation analysis shows that lead times are strongly correlated to most complaints received from customers (end users and user departments). Additionally, there is a correlation between the quality of goods (measured in terms of meeting specifications) and most complaints from customers (internal and external). There is a correlation between procurement costs and common complaints from suppliers. There was no correlation between lead times, quality of goods procured, procurement costs, and the number of complaints received in the organization about procurement practices. The study recommends benchmarking among manufacturing state corporations and the adoption of e-procurement as ways of dealing with cost efficiency, time efficiency, and quality control challenges. The study also recommends a review of the Public Procurement and Disposals Act (PPDA) in order to shorten the lengthy procurement process but also provide mechanisms so that procurement managers can proactively purchase the best quality supplies at market prices.
- ItemAn Analysis of factors affecting Public-Private-Dialogue(PPD) in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2019) Aden, Abdikarim DaudThrough the public-private-dialogue (PPD) process, the Kenyan government has over some years now placed more emphasis on public-private-partnerships (PPPs) in an endeavour to realize its development agenda. However, several operational, strategy and policy challenges affect the PPD process in Kenya. Literature reviewed pointed out that the private sector's relationship with government is in some cases viewed skeptically as one that is driven by political pressure from the ruling elite and prominent personalities in government. This study sought to analyze the factors that affect the success of the PPD process in Kenya, by reviewing the PPD Charter of Good Practice (20 15) as the main empirical literature source. The researcher identified six (6) key factors that contribute to the success of PPD. This include the existence of an open governance process; an appropriate structure that facilitates wide representation and participation of a wide array of stakeholders; the achievement of quality outputs; an outreach and communications strategy; a monitoring and evaluation framework and a sustainability mechanism. Data collection was achieved by conducting interviews with 15 key informants (8 from public sector and 7 from private sector) that were purposively selected, based on their experience and knowledge of the PPD process within the Kenyan context, and on their willingness to participate in the study. The study reaffirmed that the PPD process is essential for spurring national development, employment creation and mitigating poverty levels. However, the PPD process in Kenya has not been optimally structured to reap the full benefits from the process. The recommendations made were that the government should become more open and approachable to the private sector to avoid the purpose of the PPD process being hijacked by a powerful elitist group. The process should be more inclusive in terms of representation and participation; there should be independent evaluation of PPD/PPP projects to assess their quality and outcomes; enhance information sharing amongst stakeholders and that the government should marshal more resources in support of the process for it to be sustainable in future. Considering that this was a qualitative study, the researcher recommends that a quantitative study be done to establish the extent to which these key factors affect the success of the PPD process in Kenya. Further studies should also be done to analyze key factors influencing the choice of PPP projects in light of the PPD process, with reference to international best practices.
- ItemAn Assessment of consumer buying behavior of African aesthetic fashion brands in South Africa(Strathmore University, 2019) Moret –Qubu, Natasha Eaglet MakgotsoAfrican aesthetic brands have faced increased competition from global fashion brands within the local South African markets. Despite the normal market being perceptive to the brands, there has been limited growth within the sector. There is a demand for African fashion, and African fashion designers and South African businesses could benefit from a better understanding of consumer buying behaviour as improved insights on the targeted consumers could result in an increase in sales and profitability, and this could, in tum, improve the growth of fashion businesses in South Africa. The current study sought to determine how perceived quality, consumer perceived value, media influence and gender identity influence consumer purchasing behaviour. The research was premised on the social cognitive theory. The target population of the research was drawn from consumers within South Africa, and an appropriate sample was then scientifically determined. The collected research data was collected from primary sources using a structured questionnaire through Google Forms. The collected research data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysed data was presented using charts and tables. The findings of the research indicated that variations in the consumer purchasing behaviour of African aesthetic brands were determined by perceived quality, consumer perceived value, media influence and gender identity. The study concludes that an improvement in the above factors would enhance consumer purchasing behaviour. The study recommends that managers of African fashion brands firm should foster the cultural acceptability of their products, enhance their pricing mechanisms, increase their product durability and quality as well as increase their media visibility.
- ItemAn Assessment of employees' perception of factors influencing the performance of existing mergers and acquisitions in the aviation industry in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2019) Yakub, Ismail AnwaraliThe purpose of this study was to determine the employees' perception of the factors influencing the performance of existing Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) in the aviation industry in Kenya. The specific objectives that acted as a guide for this study included: investigating the influence of firm size on the performance of existing M&A in the aviation industry in Kenya, determining the influence of corporate culture on the performance of existing M&A in the aviation industry in Kenya, to establish the effects of legal and regulatory compliance on the performance of existing M&A in the aviation industry in Kenya, to find out the influence of management structure on performance of existing M&A in the aviation industry in Kenya. The descriptive survey research had a targeted population of 403 staff working in all 6 aviation firms. Thirty percent (30%) of the entire staff population of staff in the six firms was chosen using a stratified random sampling method. The sample size was therefore 121 possible respondents. The research instrument was a questionnaire which helped collect primary data. Data collected in this study analysed via quantitative and assembled to form the final findings and interpretations. Data gathered quantitatively from various close-ended questions will be classified into various groups and an analysis done. The SPSS program helped calculate the expected parameters. Descriptive statistics revolve around charts, graphs as well as the frequenq1 percentages utilized in measuring the central tendencies and reporting the data assembled from the findings extracted from the close-ended items. Above the inferential statistics like regression analysis, other forms of analysis such as ANOVA and correlation were used. The study concluded that; there was a rise in the number of various firm outlets in the recent past, the staff is aware that there are a series of product diversity potential consumers enjoy since the merger and/or acquisition, and the staff was aware of a series of associated benefits accruing from firm size, especially in the spread of risks and other related expenses. The shared norms as well as the beliefs in studied firms have helped them to stand at a good position in the aviation industry their organization has shared values and assumptions which are well a1ticulated in the strategic plan being implemented, and the management in their aviation firm is responsible to the harmonization of different types of cultures. It was noted that; the legal policies governing the operations of their firm are simple and understandable; the government's requirements on the level of adoption of legal policies are a serious hindrance towards the overall performance of this firm. Finally, the study noted that; there is an adequate management structure in place in the firms that articulates the operations of employees the management structure categorization is effective in defining each role of the staff in the M&A, the staff has experienced challenges associated with the division of roles/duties by top management in this organization.
- ItemAn Assessment of the factors affecting the achievement of turnaround strategies at Kenya Airways(Strathmore University, 2023) Wanyama, E.By December 2019, the turnaround strategy at Kenya Airways had shown improved revenue. There was an increase in number of revenue passengers and new routes were opened to Geneva and Rome with connections to Malindi. Just as the turnaround strategy was gaining success, the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic resulted in suspension of flights and government lockdowns which severely impacted the achievement of the turnaround strategy. These factors forced Kenya Airways to implement significant cost-cutting measures. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that affect the achievement of turnaround strategies in airlines, with a focus on Kenya Airways. The specific objectives were; to examine the effect of strategic alliances, competitive strategies, leadership and Covid-19 pandemic on the achievement of turnaround strategies at Kenya Airways. The study was grounded on the strategic turnaround theory. Descriptive research design was adopted for this study and the researcher probed for information from employees using survey methodology. The unit of observation was managers at Kenya Airways from the following departments: Strategy and Finance department, Human Resources, Technical Operations, Ground Services and Flight Operations. The unit of analysis was 155 employees drawn from senior level, middle level and lower level of management at Kenya Airways. The sample size for the study was 112 employees drawn from the 4 departments. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Simple random method was applied on respondents earmarked for participation in the study then descriptive and inferential statistics were finally used to analyze and interpret the data. The researcher ensured that the study complies with research quality standards including validity, objectivity and reliability. The study was able to obtain 78% response rate which is adequate when conducting quantitative analysis. Correlation tests showed strategic alliances, competitive strategies and leadership have a positive effect on competitiveness and profitability of Kenya Airways. The study concluded that achievement of turnaround strategies within Kenya Airways is positively related to the execution of strategic alliances, competitive strategies, leadership and Covid-19. Independently the research concluded that strategic alliances, competitive strategies and leadership do have a significant positive effect on achievement of turnaround strategies. The research further concluded that Covid-19 had a negative and insignificant effect on the achievement of turnaround strategies at Kenya Airways. The research recommended that the airline should cooperate more with other major airlines globally that will help in enhancing the diversification of the services offered by the airline. The study recommends that management should consider more hybrid strategies that are more practical when operating in a fluid environment. This will help in avoiding any corrosive effects to the profitability and competitiveness of the airline. The study also recommends that management should implement better recruitment and retention of a highly qualified and diversified workforce which will enhance the effective execution of strategies which can lead to better performance.
- ItemAn Assessment of the impact of the Integrated National Transport Policy in the road sector within Nairobi County(Strathmore University, 2019) Adhiambo, Evelyn Maureen"Moving a working Nation" was the driving theme in the formulation and implementation of the Integrated National Transport Policy, 2009. The policy document identified several challenges which were, inhibitors in the sector from performing its role with respect to National, Regional, and international integration. Some of these challenges included inadequate infrastructural development and maintenance, insufficient funding, and gaps in the legal, institutional, and regulatory framework for the sector. The policy document subsequently provided policy solutions for each sector with a view to addressing the said challenges. This study investigated the impact of the Integrated National Transport Policy in the road sector within Nairobi County from 2010 to 2015. This was done by identifying impacts on implementation by assessing the policy overlaps, policy gaps, and system and institutional failures, that have either emerged or have persisted over time, with a keen focus on the policies that guided infrastructure, funding, regulation, and enforcement. Data was collected using both primary and secondary sources. Primary data relied on empirical scholarly research articles, self-administered questionnaires, and in-depth interviews with public officers at levels or ranks drawn from various state agencies who were purposively selected. Secondary data was sourced from organizational records, surveys, and reports for other research and surveys conducted that were associated with the road sector within Nairobi County. The findings of this study found that the Integrated National Transport Policy in the road sector had a positive and significant effect on infrastructural development and the expansion of roads. It also had an Integrated National Transport Policy in the road sector, which had a positive and significant effect on funding, and it was further observed that implementation of the road transport policy had a positive and significant effect on regulation & enforcement. This study, therefore, recommends a complete overhaul of the road sector transport policy to fully address the question of infrastructural, funding, and review or realignment of the various legislation to facilitate ease of enforcement of the various road laws within Nairobi County.
- ItemAn Assessment of the purchasing arrangements of an employer in-house managed scheme: a case study of AAR Healthcare(Strathmore University, 2019) Mwaura, Njeri LilianKenya has made a commitment to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) by 2022. The country is undertaking health financing reforms that will set it on the path to achieving this goal. While health financing reforms have typically focused on the resource generation and pooling function of the health system, there is increasing recognition of the importance of the purchasing function of the health financing system. Purchasing refers to the transfer of pooled funds to healthcare providers in exchange for healthcare services provided to citizens. Purchasing could either be passive, which means merely paying bills, or strategic, which means structured to enhance the health system goals of equity, efficiency, and quality. Healthcare purchasing in Kenya is carried out by 5 main entities namely 1) the national hospital insurance fund (NHIF), 2) the county health systems 3) private health insurance 4) community-based health insurance schemes, and 5) employer in-house medical schemes. Previous studies done in Kenya has assessed the purchasing arrangements of the first 4. There is however not study that has examined the purchasing arrangements of employer in-house medical schemes. To fill this knowledge gap, this proposed study examined the purchasing arrangements of employer in house schemes in Kenya. Specifically, the study used a qualitative case study approach to examine the extent to which the purchasing arrangements of the AAR in-house medical scheme are strategic. This study employed the conceptual framework developed by the Resilient and Responsive Health Systems (RESYST) consortium to examine the purchasing actions of the AAR medical scheme across the three purchasing relationships, namely purchaser-government, purchasing-providers, and purchasing-citizens. Data was collected through a combination of in depth interviews and document reviews Respondents for the in-depth interviews were selected purposively to get individuals with in-depth knowledge of scheme. Relevant documents that contain information on the scheme were also obtained and analysed. Qualitative data was audio recorded, transcribed, importeded to NVIVO software, and analysed using a thematic approach. It was evidenced, by the findings put forward in this section that the purchasing mechanism in AAR Healthcare is passive as characterized by arbitrary fun allocation to the in-house scheme and nominal sourcing of providers. There was no evidence of strategic purchasing with regard to the acquisition or distribution of financing in the service provision process. The process was however deemed effective by all users. With regard to the second objective, it was evident that AAR Healthcare did not feature a specific purchasing entity as the purchasing functions were distributed between the HR, Procurement and Finance department. This therefore rendered the relationship between the purchaser and the other entities- citizens (employees), government and providers- as fragmented and uncharacterized; the system was essentially run as in-house health benefit scheme with the exception of contracted services given that the organization provided health services, such services were mainly sought in-house as opposed to through contracts with other providers. The main recommendation forthcoming from this study is that AAR Healthcare should consider a switch to strategic purchasing in effecting its healthcare provision function to employees. In achieving these, it will be necessary to first and foremost institute a designated purchaser for the fund; one that would be charged with orchestrating all functions involved with other actors in the purchasing function. Findings from this study can also be used to prescribe possible purchasing arrangements for employer managed schemes.
- ItemAn Assessment of the relationship between capital markets development and economic growth in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2021) Kilel, Viola ChelangatThis study investigated the relationship between capital markets development and economic growth in Kenya for the period 2000-2019 The study used Gross Domestic Product (GOP) as the dependent variable and market capitalization, equity market turnover, bone! Market turnover as the independent variables, 91-day T -Bill as the control variable and exchange rates as the moderating variable. The data was analysed using STATA version 14.0. Statistical analyses including Descriptive statistics, Optimal Lag length selection, ARDL Bound tests for cointegration, Stationarity Test, ARDL ECM model , ECM, goodness of fit test, diagnostic tests and stability tests were undertaken. From the results, it is evident that capital market development has a significant positive effect on economic growth in Kenya. The study findings revealed that market capitalization had a significantly negative effect on GDP in the short run and a significantly positive effect on GOP in the long run. Flll1her, equity market turnover had a significantly positive effect on economic growth short run and a significantly negative effect on economic growth in the long run. Bond market turnover results indicated the presence of a significantly positive effect at first difference in the short run and a significantly negative effect on economic growth in the long run. The study's bound test statistic validates the presence of long run effect of the model on GDP as f-value as well as above the critical values. The study recommends that CMA and Capital markets industry stakeholders should implement initiatives that will support market activity and securities subscriptions in a bid to increase Market Capitalization, Equity Turnover and Bond Turnover percentage contribution to GDP. flll1her, it recommends the National Treasury to review sustainability of economic development and the suitability of the operating and economic environment for the growth and development of the domestic capital markets. In conclusion, domestic capital market plays a fundamental role as an engine for economic growth as revealed by the study findings.
- ItemAn Examination of the factors influencing the mode of child delivery in Nairobi County(Strathmore University, 2021) Karori, CatherineKenya has a female population of approximately 25.8 million people according to the World Bank 2018 data (50.32% of the total population). Of these, 25.4% are of childbearing age between ages 15 to 49 (6.5 million). During childbirth, the women deliver at various healthcare facilities including at home, and undergo two main types of delivery: vaginal birth (normal delivery) or cesarean section (C-section) delivery. The recommended form of child delivery is a normal delivery. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that C-section surgeries be carried out only when medically necessary. The international healthcare community recommends a C-section rate of I 0 - 15%. There continues to be growing global concern however about the increased rate of C-section deliveries. This research sought to study the growing trend of C-section rates using a study of Nairobi County in Kenya with a specific focus on examining the factors influencing the mode of child delivery. The study obtained data from several health facilities in Nairobi County. The data relates to the records of patients for the last thirty-six (36) months who have delivered by way of normal delivery or C-section and the classification of the patients by some of the key influencing factors for example the pre-payment mechanisms which include National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF), private health insurance and others. This was supported by questionnaires aimed at obtaining information on another key factor influencing the mode of child delivery being the characteristics of the women who opt for different modes of delivery namely normal delivery and C-section. The study aimed to provide recommendations on how best practices identified locally and globally can be implemented by the various stakeholders to achieve long-term sustainable models in healthcare while ensuring quality, accessible, and cost-effective healthcare services. In addition, the study sought to reinforce that sections be carried out only when medically necessary in the best interest of the maternal health practice and the various stakeholders. The findings indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between key influencing factors like prepayment mechanisms and medical personnel on the mode of child delivery. The coefficient results pointed to a significant relation of medical personnel to the mode of child delivery. The independent T-test results indicated that there was a significant mean difference between the amount paid through cash and insurance. The study concluded that prepayment mechanisms and medical personnel have a statistically significant relationship with the mode of child delivery. However, when combined with other variables, prepayment mechanisms did not have a significant predictive ability to influence the mode of child delivery. In addition, the study concluded that in terms of financial implications, women who opted for prepayment mechanisms such as NHIF, corporate insurance, or private personal insurance were likely to pay more compared to those who opted for cash payment. The study recommended that the prepayment mechanisms, as a key influencing factor, enforce policies and guidelines including strategic purchasing models with healthcare service providers including medical doctors, and define acceptable levels of C-section deliveries.
- ItemAn exploratory study of market segmentation in container shipping in KenyaNjoroge, Simon PeterThe ocean shipping market has been characterised by tremendous change since the advent of containerised liner shipping in the mid-1950s. Liner shipping firms are increasingly seeking to improve their positions in the market by retaining existing customers and attracting new ones with innovative product offerings. The ship owners and their management are obliged to operationalize specific concepts of marketing to secure and retain their competitive advantage and secure returns for their shareholders. One way to do this is to focus their efforts on distinct pockets of the market where customers with similar service requirements could be optimally targeted with the most attractive offers. By successfully segmenting its market, a carrier could derive greater value from capitalising on the potentially substantial future growth of export container traffic. The respondents for this study were drawn from the members of the Kenya Shippers Council and their carrier selection decisions investigated. Three service related aspects of containerised transport were related to the key exporter related attributes of freight bill, cargo volume and cargo type. The study undertook a logistic regression analysis of these factors to determine the significance of the relationship. The findings provide evidence of the existence of defined sets of export shippers for whom the selection of carrier is influenced by their export cargo type and cargo volumes. The study reveals that exporters with annual shipments of 50 forty foot equivalent units and annual freight bill of 50,000 US dollars should be targeted by ship owners and shipping line managers with service propositions focussing on reliability of service, safety of cargo and accessibility of services. The study contributes to a better understanding of the importance of and attitude towards market segmentation in the growing export of goods by sea from Kenya. A similar study would be useful for developing an understanding of customer segmentation in other modes of transport for the export of goods from Kenya and the rest of East Africa.
- ItemAn exploratory study on venture capital growth and regulation in KenyaMathenge, George; Kerrets, MonicaThe dissertation is a qualitative exploratory study that looked at Venture Capital growth and regulation in Kenya. Inspite of the significant role played by Venture Capital (VC) in financing entrepreneurial ventures in the West the same level of VC funding uptake does not seem to have taken root in Kenya. Three main objectives therefore formed the basis of this study. First to find out what form of regulation was needed for VC to grow in Kenya, secondly to identify what criteria various institutions, which are not licensed by the Capital Markets Authority were using in advancing VC Funds and lastly find out what factors accounted for the slow pace/ growth of the VC industry in Kenya. The research study used a semi structured in depth face to face interviews with industry players, the Capital Markets Authority, the Africa Venture Capital Association and the Nairobi Securities Exchange The results reveal three main issues. Firstly, the industry in Kenya was young and regulation needed to be considered in this light. Secondly, the type of regulation needed was a facilitative one that would allow the industry to grow. Finally, the VC Industry was also affected to a great extent by government policies especially taxation and legislation. The study concludes by making recommendations on what needs to be in place to encourage VC set up and growth in Kenya. This includes having the government stimulating entrepreneurship, reconsidering the taxation regime, developing a legal framework for the industry. The Capital Market Authority playing a facilitating role and the Securities Exchange increasing the depth of its offerings. It also requires the industry to organise itself so that it can effectively be able to lobby various constituents on matters affecting the VC industry.
- ItemAn Investigation of factors influencing retention of doctors in Machakos County: a case of Machakos level 5 hospital(Strathmore University, 2018) Kipkore, Sheila JepkoechHuman resources in the health sector comprise a fundamental element in the delivery of health services and the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) globally. The escalating shortage of health personnel in Kenya has become critical concern that needs to be addressed as an integral strategy of improving the health systems (Miseda, Were, Mmianki, Mutuku, & Mutwiwa, 2017). The aim of this study is to investigate the factors such as job satisfaction; career progression and leadership style and how they affect retention of doctors in Machakos County. The study employed a survey research design and data was collected using structured questionnaires. The Quantitative data was assessed using descriptive statistics like frequency and percentages. The target population of the study was 54 doctors and 78% of them participated in the survey. The findings from the survey shows that doctors job satisfaction is affected by different factors that include high workload, poor stock of drugs and lack of recognition by management. On career progression the survey revealed that training did not follow the policy criteria, it was irregular and not supported financially by the management. Promotions were opportunities were unequal, irregular and not based on merit. The leadership style been practiced was the task-oriented leadership. From the findings of the study, it can be concluded that, retention is very important among the medical professionals therefore the hospital management and MOH should formulate retention strategies.