Browsing by Author "Kiraka, Ruth"
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- ItemA requirements elicitation process model for health management information systems: case of Kenyatta National HospitalGikura, Mary Wambui; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Orero, Joseph Onderi; Kiraka, RuthRequirements Elicitation (RE) is about learning and understanding the needs of users and stakeholders with the aim of communicating these needs to the system developers. Requirements Elicitation is an important stage in Information Systems development (ISD), and has substantial impact on software costs.RE has remained a key topic of interest for researchers and they have stated that a large number of Information Systems development (ISD) projects fail resulting in high costs to organizations. One of the reasons that these projects fail is the inability of the Information System to precisely satisfy user 's requirements which is a result of inaccurate and incomplete requirements collected in the Requirements Elicitation (RE) stage. Considering the importance of the RE stage in information systems development projects , this stage therefore becomes a critical area for IS research. This research focused on the process of RE in the development of the Heath Management Information Systems (HMIS) in Kenyatta National Hospital. Using data collected from the developers and users in the hospital the study presents a Requirements Elicitation Process model for Health Management Information systems. The results showed that the greatest challenge in the RE process was communication and the study suggests requirements prototyping to solve communication challenges. The implementation was conducted in Kenyatta national Hospital 's Comprehensive care centre. In conclusion the study elaborates a RE model that incorporates communication and requirements prototyping as key elements in the model.
- ItemAn assessment of open source software's use for administrative, teaching and learning in private chartered universities in Kenya.(Strathmore University, 2013-06) Misoi, Irene Chepng'etich; Onyango-Otieno, Vitalis; Marwanga, Reuben (Dr.); Kiraka, RuthKenyan private chartered universities have implemented Open source software for administrative, teaching and learning purposes. However despite the implementation of these Open source software, a review of literature reveals a lack of knowledge on the extent and success that has been achieved in the implementation of open source software projects in universities in Kenya. Given the advantages of using Open Source Software in university operations, there is need for better understanding of the key challenges facing usage and implementation of Open Source Systems and therefore propose a framework for implementation of open source systems. The study focuses to determine the key challenges facing the usage and implementation of open source software for teaching, learning and management activities of private universities in Kenya and proposes a framework for implementing open source systems in Kenyan universities. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The findings from this research provides evidence that most universities need to provide for adequate budget to go towards supporting the systems use the main conclusions drawn from this study are that private chartered universities in Kenya have implemented Open Source Software. This is perhaps the reason why many private chartered universities have automated most university processes, and that Moodle Open Source Software is widely used.
- ItemBusiness development services (BDS)Otieno, Hellen; Kiraka, RuthWhile the role that micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) play in all economies is universally acknowledged, only a small segment of small businesses is capable of making full use of opportunities and coping effectively with threats without assistance. Smallness confers some inherent competitive disadvantages and same sort of external support is warranted in order for these enterprises to each their full potential (OECD, 2004). Services to promote and enhance MSME competitive performance accordingly constitute important policy instruments in many countries including advanced ones, such as the USA. However, programmes and institutions designed to support small enterprises have reached and assisted only a minority of them. This chapter examines the meaning, scope, role and the changing perspectives of business development services (BDS).
- ItemCoffee supply chain traceability model: Case of the Coffee Board of Kenya(Strathmore university, 2013-06) Mumbi, Mungai Karen; Sevilla, Joseph; Orero, Joseph Onderi; Kiraka, RuthThis thesis describes the potential impact of the introduction, implementation and integration of traceability model in the coffee industry. It seeks to identify a traceability model to be used as a blueprint in developing a traceability system for the coffee sector. This is achieved by highlighting the value chain players in the coffee sub-sector, the processes and to ensure that the system is aligned along the coffee supply chain. This technological innovation is meant to trace coffee consistently and efficiently from the point of origin to the point of consumption. Absence of the right traceability model in the coffee sector in Kenya is hindering the potential of this sector as well as limiting its growth. The value of an automated coffee traceability system would seek to integrate all the information scattered from all the supply chain player's; centralize capture; storage and retrieval of information; speed up processing of information; keep track of the production process ; generate reports; and also be used as a knowledge management tool. The methodology used was a basic survey, questionnaire and interview. Data was collected from a sample selected to represent a larger population. This sample size consists of Sasini Miller Limited and the Coffee Board of Kenya. The estimated population of CBK ICT users in the organization is 65 working with the confidence level of 95% and a confidence interval of 9, using the sample size formula 42 employees best characterized the general understanding of the entire CBK population. In this research the product-centric data model was selected owing to its critical packages of traceability and quality appropriate for the food industry. The traceability package contained entities that enabled tracing and tracking the product throughout its lifecycle and the quality package contained entities that represent the quality features of the product. Based on the data collected the traceability components missing in the current traceability system in the coffee sub-sector. The proposed model incorporates the missing traceability components and ensured that the product-centric parameters of traceability and quality are enhanced. Additional technologies included are traceability standards and bar-coding technologies thereby improving and customizing the model for the coffee sub-sector in Kenya The model ensures that adequate information is generated at the right time and is available to the next person in the supply chain. It enhances identification of the coffee product, movements and processes done in the supply chain. It also allows the supply chain players to process , store, handle and display the product safely and correctly.
- ItemCost Effective News Gathering Technique in Kenya Using Terrestrial Broadband IP Links(2013-11-18) Njoroge, Benson W.; Sevilla, Joseph; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Kiraka, RuthThis study aims to understand the methodologies and challenges of the current news gathering techniques used by broadcasters in Kenya and provide guidelines and methodology for development of an economical and cost-effective alternative technique. The research adopts both an analytic and applied approach. The analytic approach aims to review and analyze the existing methodologies and techniques and the challenges associated with them. The Applied approach aims to provide a guideline and methodology for a cost-effective alternative technique using locally available computer hardware (Video input and output cards), software (MPEG4 encoders and decoders) running over terrestrial broadband IP Links. The findings indicate that majority of the broadcasters in Kenya use the traditional satellite based news gathering technique (Digital Satellite News Gathering) which exhibit expensive and proprietary hardware systems and software. These techniques are always constrained by resources such as satellite bandwidth, hardware equipments and qualified manpower. The designed cost-effective alternative technique delivers the same video quality with significantly low capital expenditure and operation costs. The cost effective technique provides good foundation for future research and development of low cost commercial news gathering systems that run on broadband IP links. Additional research and experiments are recommended for development of similar but robust, versatile and automated systems that have the encoding software embedded in the operating systems code (such as Linux and UNIX) in a scenario where the encoder and decoder computers powers on without I/O devices and starts the services at boot time. The developed technique provide the broadcasters in Kenya and other developing countries with a cheaper alternative news gathering systems that can be used where reliable and fast terrestrial fibre, microwave, WiMax , 3 G or 4G links exists. For guaranteed service, the broadcasters should ensure they use robust computers suitable for outdoor use and the bandwidth available on the terrestrial links is over 2 Mbps for video and 128 Kbps for audio. This study shows that for the fist time, the terrestrial IP broadband networks in the region can be used for news gathering services by broadcasters using low cost equipments. The economic sense of using computers shows the news gathering service can be available to broadcasters regardless of cost and resource constraints.
- ItemDeriving a transparent dataspace-oriented entity associative algorithm(Strathmore University, 2014-06) Shibwabo, Bernard K.; Wanyembi, Gregory W.; Kiraka, Ruth; Ateya, Ismail; Orero, JosephOrganizations possess data residing in varied data sources though there is no effective way of integrating these repositories to provide information to end users transparently. This is primarily caused by the fact that the existing data is stored in databases that consist of varied models and techniques of both storage and access to data. The main aim of this research was to formulate a set of algorithms to support the development of a dataspace support platform that integrates data residing in divergent data stores. These techniques facilitate the asscociation of data entities in a dataspace by enabling entity coexistence for integrating data residing in divergent data stores. The research objectives were to analyze the state of dataspace implementation, to develop a model that outlines the criteria for successful dataspace design, to develop a dataspace support platform that integrates data residing in divergent data stores and to conduct experiments to validate the scalability of the implemented dataspace support platform. In order to achieve these objectives, the soft systems theory is applied. A literature survey approach is adopted and supplemented from the findings by use of brainstorming and further experiments. The findings have been used to identify facts pertaining to the principles, design and implementation of a dataspace support platform. The final outcome consists of a set of algorithms, models and a test dataspace support platform. Access to information is facilitated through a more scalable, flexible and transparent platform regardless of the underlying data models. This results to a O(log n + k ) query response time coupled with a O(n) build time on the entire dataspace. In conclusion, the triggers for enterprise systems integration are apparent, and compliance is only one of numerous drivers pushing organizations towards achieving a more integrated outlook of enterprise data. With the dataspace-oriented entity associative algorithm, users can have the ability to harness or filter informational requirements so as to enhance decision making in terms of time, accuracy and availability of information.
- ItemEffects of business process automation in a revenue collection agency : a case study at Kenya Revenue Authority(Strathmore University, 2011-06) Mbugua, Irene N.; Ismail Lukandu; Kiraka, Ruth; Marwanga (Dr.), ReubenThe effects and contributions of adopting Information Communication Technology (ICT) by organizations have been on a rise in recent times. However, the anticipated end results are most often not realized due to automation challenges which include resistance from employees, lack of standards and policies that govern the automation process. Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) embraced Information Technology (IT) as an enhancement of revenue collection strategy since the year 2005. The general research objective was to establish improved KRA operations as a result of the adoption of IT; other specific objectives were to find out the challenges faced and possible solutions during the process of automation. The research was also to come up with a conceptual model that can be used for Automation of business processes in revenue collection agencies and organizations. A descriptive survey design was adopted utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The approach aimed at getting information that describes a situation, behavior, attitudes of the individual and the community in revenue collection environment hence the target population of this study was the staff at KRA. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected for the four objectives. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to aid the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic method by grouping the information provided by the respondents into similar themes. In terms of findings, about 71.1% of operations e.g. communication between KRA and CBK, tax collection, Vehicle registration, Filing of tax returns were recorded to have greatly improved. About 18.4% of processes have not improved and about 10.5% remaining the same. About 75.7% of the respondents felt that the adoption of ICT has had a remarkable change in the revenue collection efficiency. Some of the conclusions made from the findings of the study are that increased revenue collection was the highest by 22% translating to about Kenya shillings 12.53 billion in 2009110, followed by 20% in general authority's operations as a result of automation. There was also improved audit trail at 19% while staff efficiency 15%. Some improved factors were international trade and relations at 14% and 10% respectively. This research developed an effective automation model that described how best the automation can take place in a revenue collection environment.
- ItemAn examination of the capital structure decisions by companies quoted on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange.(2013-11-13) Kumalija, Jacob; Koshal, Jeremiah Ole; Wangombe, David; Kiraka, RuthThis study was carried out in Tanzania. The study was intended to examine the levels of debt and equity employed by companies quoted on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (OSE) in financing their businesses. The study also aimed at identifying the significant factors that influence the capital structure and further to examine the financial managers' opinions on the factors they perceive important in influencing the capital structure. The study focused on 9 selected non-financial companies quoted on the (OSE). The data was collected for 10 years beginning 2000 to 2009 and was obtained from the companies' financial reports and from questionnaires that were mailed to the (CFOs) of all the 9 companies. The most important theories that have guided this study are pecking order theory, agency cost theory and trade-off theory. By using descriptive analysis, it has been found that companies quoted on the (OSE) are on average moderately levered as they prefer relatively more equity to debt. By using regression analysis, the empirical results show that the significant factors influencing the capital structure of companies quoted on the (OSE) are; industry class, company profitability, company size, non-debt tax shields and growth opportunities. Contrary to the outcome of prior studies in developing countries, this study finds that asset tangibility, earnings volatility and effective tax rate are positively related with capital structure. The results of regression are consistent with the opinions of the CFOs except for assets tangibility, earnings volatility and effective tax rate which are perceived by (CFOs) as important factors while the regression analysis shows them as not influential factors on capital structure by companies quoted on the (OSE)The possible explanation for these differences may be that company officials perceive some of the factors as important while in reality they are not. This study makes several contributions to the body of knowledge as well as providing insights to academicians. The study further reveals that there is no single theory that simultaneously predicts the full set of the reliable factors; this warrants further development of the capital structure theories. Finally, the researcher concludes that capital structure decisions varies from country to country and even from industry to industry and should be dealt as such.
- ItemAn exploratory study on the usage of M-payments by small and medium business enterprises in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2011-09) Kimathi, Vella G. N; Lukandu, Ismail Ateya; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Kiraka, RuthThe aim of this study was to identify the key aspects of the currently available m-Commerce systems, and, in particular, identify what the drivers were for a successful implementation. The study was to look at the technology, market & competition, regulatory and network load issues with a view to explore on the usage of m-payments by small and medium business enterprises in Kenya. This study has necessarily taken a high-level look at the emerging second hand clothing industry imitumba businesses) and in the process has identified the difficult issues that will impact the success of new implementations, such as m-commerce, in the African market(s). The rapid spread of mobile phones means that the number of mobile users may exceed the number of banked people in many low income countries. Mobile phones can also offer a communications channel for initiating and executing on-line financial transactions. This channel may not only reduce the cost of financial transactions for provider and customer, but also allow new entrants to the financial sector, and new relationships to be formed for distributing services. These changes hold the prospect of accelerating access to financial services on the back of the mobile infrastructure. This research investigates the extent to which the expansion of mobile telephony is likely to lead to the expansion of access to appropriate financial services in developing countries, especially Africa. The objectives of this study are to determine how the current m-payment habits are being perceived by entrepreneurs in Kenya, to establish whether reaching the small and medium business entrepreneurs through m-payments will be the ultimate driver towards an entrepreneurship boom in Kenya and to determine which business model can support m-payments for online transactions. The researcher of this paper acquired data for analysis in order to, firstly, find out how the current m-payments habits are being perceived by entrepreneurs in Kenya. Therefore, she conducted a survey through questionnaires to evaluate feasibility of the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) population doing transactions through m-payments. The study discovered that small businesses are using money transfer systems for transactions, and this has lead to the rapid growth of establishments and low cost of operations for small businesses. It was concluded that the usage of mobile payment systems shall lead to an explosion of small business set-ups in Kenya and Africa at large.
- ItemA Framework for a Sustainable ICT Implementation Solution for Public Primary Schools: Case of Nairobi West District(2013-11-15) Warui, Michael N.; Ateya, Ismail Lukandu; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Kiraka, RuthDespite the emergence of ICT resources - such as computers, multimedia and the Internet, the proportion of public primary schools in Kenya making use of ICT is still very low. This research revealed that lack of technical support and access to educational software and econtent, and limited understanding on how to integrate ICTs into teaching were perceived by teachers as the key barriers to the further uptake of ICT in primary schools. Consequently, primary schools are unable to embrace an effective learning and quality pedagogy as they relate to ICT integration. Therefore, the dissertation undertook to develop a framework that would support, describe and promote good practice in the use of ICT in learning and teaching in public primary schools. To help schools introduce sustainable ICT into learning environments, a framework that has seven basic execution steps was developed. These steps are i) defining the educational objectives; ii) designing suitable e-school model; iii) selecting the specific technology platform along with the necessary content and applications; iv) deploying the ICT infrastructure; v) working out how much this technology will cost, not just initially but throughout the project life; vi) establishing user training, maintenance and technical support; and finally, vii) setting out framework implementation management, monitoring and reporting for continuous progress and improvement. In each of the steps, a school has to undertake several activities as the inputs in the execution of the framework. There is a resultant outcome after execution of each activity, which is measurable. A Likert scale of 5 has been provided to schools executing the framework in order to score or rate how they are able to attain the desired objectives. Implementation of the framework could help primary schools to introduce sustainable ICT into learning environments by identifying and assessing technology options, their benefits and feasibility.
- ItemImpact of Information and Communication Technology investment on organizational performance(2013-11-13) Gakuo, Robert K.; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Kiraka, Ruth; Acosta, FreddieThe impact of information and communication technologies (lCT) investment on business performance has been a major research subject for long time. Until the mid 1990s there was little empirical evidence of a positive and statistically significant relation between lCT investment and business performance (lCT Productivity Paradox). Subsequent research, conducted mainly in a few highly developed countries, provided some empirical evidence of a statistically significant positive contribution of lCT investment to some measures of business performance, which increases if ICT investment is complemented by 'co-investments' that create some complementary 'intangible assets', such as new work practices, business processes, organizational structures and skills. This research examines the impact of information and communication technology (lCT) investment on performance at Nairobi Water Company. The research design that was adopted was descriptive research. The target population constituted lCT technical and management staff; Billing technical and Management staff; Engineering technical and Management and Finance management staff who are mainly rCT systems owners at NCWSC Nairobi. The research developed organizational performance survey indicators that were used to assess the impact of rCT on NCWSC performance. It was clear that majority agreed that rCT has enhanced the company revenue. The observations showed that investments in rCT substantially increased the average organizational performance of companies, since 2007 when NCWSC embarked on an rCT development strategy various milestones have been achieved and the company overall revenue improving. As far as recommendation are concerned staff need to be trained, this will address Change Readiness, Seeding of Change, Capacity Building, Monitoring and Review and Sustaining Change with regard to processes, roles, boundaries and structures, mind set/attitudes. Change management needs to be tied to staff appraisal. The process should include the change management program to cover programme selection, control and evaluation.
- ItemInnovative Private Sector Development Instruments – an African PerspectiveKiraka, RuthSmall and medium enterprises (SME) are viewed as a key driver of economic and social development in the African context. They represent a large number of businesses, generate a relative large proportion of employment and are widely considered to be vital for a country’s competitiveness. To be competitive, they need one key ingredient: innovation. However, they are often unable to develop appropriate and innovative products due to a general lack of financial strength as well as technical and managerial skills. A part from that, they operate in an environment with multiple challenges: On the macro level, these include bureaucratic legal and regulatory frameworks, poor physical infrastructure, and a multiplicity of taxes. On the meso level, the challenges include inadequate support in terms of business training and skills, the unavailability of information on markets, suppliers and partners, a limited access to finance as well as weak, fragmented and uncoordinated institutions supportive of SME. Nevertheless, opportunities for investing in SME development are given, they include the commercialisation of SME innovations, the provision of resources to SME so that they are able to conduct research and market testing, business incubation, the funding of indigenous knowledge development and transfer, the development or rejuvenation of industry clusters, and the establishment of SME support centres These initiatives can enhance SME competitiveness, create more opportunities for employment and economic development and address a number of the challenges listed above.
- ItemIntegrated Intrusion Detection Security System Model(Strathmore university, 2014-06) Katana, Mwatete Dominic; Ateya, Ismail Lukandu; Orero, Joseph Onderi; Kiraka, RuthOrganizations are investing heavily in security systems to secure their premises and assets . In an effort to enhance security, organizations have turned to the adoption of Intrusion Detection Systems. lDSs have improved in efficiency and effectiveness in the way they detect and respond to intrusions. They are moving from manual detection of intrusions to automated detection of intrusions. Most of the existing IDSs are stand-alone hence making it difficult to associate intrusions. They also cannot offer a complete organization security hence needs to be integrated with other system security components. Exploratory research design was adopted in coming up with the solution due to the nature of the study. Data was collected through questionnaires, journals, theses and observation of existing security systems. The collected data was organized and analyzed using SPSS tool. The finding and analysis of the data were presented in descriptive statistics where tables, percentage and charts were used. The model developed was informed by the research findings that showed most organizations secure their premises and assets but lack a standardized model to integrate different security system components. An Integrated Intrusion Detection Security System Model provides a standard for developing systems to integrate different security system components in an organization. The integration of heterogeneous IDSs and different security system components improves the security performance as this associates different security system components to share intrusion information.
- ItemIntegration of E-commerce and M-commerce: infrastructure, framework and implementation(2013-11-13) Wambui, Mwangi J.; Lukandu, Ismail Ateya; Marwanga (Dr.), Reuben; Kiraka, RuthElectronic Commerce (e-Commerce) and Mobile Commerce (m-Commerce) are evolving at a pace that is revolutionizing how business is carried out. These two technologies can indeed open up markets beyond borders. The purpose of this research was to propose an integrated framework for e-Commerce and m-Commerce and to suggest a suitable implementation strategy. The objectives of the research were achieved through extensive review of vast literature on the subject matters. The research starts by looking at the various aspects of Electronic Commerce and Mobile Commerce, their barriers, benefits and possible future. Existing electronic payment modes were then discussed to identify common methods in which online transactions take place. It was found that there exists a formal framework for eCommerce, but frameworks for m-Commerce were organization specific. Extensive data collection and analysis was done to ensure that the proposed framework was as close to facts on the ground as possible. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results of the analysis indicated that 51% of the population knew about e-Commerce. It also found that only 15% had used credit cards to pay for items bought online. The proposed generic framework can help provide a starting point for e-Commerce businesses in Kenya enabling them to operate on similar platform. This proposed theoretical framework borrows from the works of Turban et al., in 2006 and aside from additional components; it allows implementers focus on important aspects of eCommerce and m-Commerce that would otherwise not receive the attention that they deserve such as policy and infrastructure requirements. This framework can then be modified to meet specific business needs. Lastly, recommendations for further research in this area were made.
- ItemIntergration model for electronic documentation applications:a case of geothermal development company(Strathmore University, 2011) Oluoch, Patrick O; Lukandu, Ismail Ateya; Kiraka, Ruth; Marwanga (Dr.), ReubenOrganizations invest in ICT software with the aim of improving internal process efficiency. Many organizations use more than one application in the same or different phases of their documentation lifecycles to meet predefined ends. Since these applications are developed at different times, and in different settings to solve different problems, they are more often disjointed. In such a scenario, end users are required to integrate the functionality of several independent applications in line with predefined business processes. Manual integration requires extensive user input which can compromise the throughput and quality of documents. Application integration provides an opportunity to improve the efficiency of documentation processes through automation of repetitive manual user input and enforcement of documentation procedures using preprogrammed rules of use. This research aimed at determining applications used in documentation processes of Geothermal Development Company (GDC) Nakuru Office and identifying any gaps which arise due to separately implemented ones. The study then designed a model to abate challenges attributable to application disjointedness. Descriptive research methodology was used since no variables at play could be controlled by the researcher. Through stratified random sampling, a representative sample of respondents was selected to whom a questionnaire was administered. Analysis of responses determined that GDC uses two key categories of applications in predefined documentation processes – word processor and electronic mail client. Use of the aforementioned applications requires manual user input to align their combined functionality with predefined business rules. This in addition to lack of a web publishing application to centrally archive documents has lead to various challenges encountered by end users which include delays in documentation due to limited collaborative support, document version mix-up and difficulty in locating documents published in e-mail. Having identified the need to integrate three applications – word processors, electronic mail client and web publishing applications, this research went ahead to develop a model to guide in achieving the same using Business Modeling Language (BML). BML is useful to all levels of stakeholders from management to technical personnel. An implementation guideline to offer more information about how the applications should be integrated to maximize on the usefulness of the integration model was further highlighted. It is important for organizations using disjointed applications with internal process efficiency improvement needs to consider application integration as the next vital step forward before investing in new applications designed to achieve the same end. This will ensure that maximum return on investment is made on already implemented applications in a shorter time while avoiding the risk of minimal yields from investment in completely new applications.
- ItemManaging development organizations: a process-based assessment of Australian based Non-governmental development OrganizationsKiraka, Ruth; Manning, Karen (Dr.)This study focused on Australian-based non-governmental development organisations (NGDOs) (also referred to as non-governmental aid agencies). The study used a telephone survey of eleven agencies and a mail survey of forty-five agencies to make inferences about organisational processes of delivering development assistance, together with an evaluation of the contribution of organisational factors and external environmental factors to the delivery of that assistance. Those aspects of organisational factors that were selected for examination were restricted to two areas, namely (i) organisational structures, and (ii) strategies for financial resource mobilisation and service delivery. The external factors selected were (i) the external stakeholders of non-governmental aid agencies (development clients, partner agencies, donors, governments, other aid agencies) and (ii) the macro environment factors. In examining these issues, the study found that: 1. In spite of the diversity within the non-governmental aid agency sector, the processes of service delivery could be broadly labeled into the following subprocesses (i) project identification and initial assessment; (ii) project implementation; and (iii) project monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. Within each of these three sub-processes, a fourth sub-process – a project sustainability process was identified. These processes, and the microprocesses within each of them, were identified in a wide range of organisations, representing different development sectors, size, scope of operation, goals, policies and objectives. This suggests that irrespective of the diversity within the sector, there are underlying principles that govern the development assistance role of aid agencies. 2. Within the broad service delivery process variations existed between agencies in respect of how the steps within each sub-process were managed. The organisational factors, structures and strategies, accounted for some of these variations in the processes. In addition, respondents identified organisational policies, working principles and the learning experiences as accounting for some of the variation. It was observed that whereas some agencies attempted to change those organisational factors that they perceived as disabling to the process of service delivery, others were unable to change owing to resource constraints. 3. The intervening effect of the external environment on process was also examined. Whereas all the agencies were faced by a similar external environment, their responses to the environment were varied, consequently varying the process of service delivery. External stakeholders were categorised as having a significant influence on the process, as their expectations formed the criteria against which the performance of aid agencies was judged. Within the stakeholders, however, there were the more powerful donors and governments and the less powerful development clients and partners. The challenge for the aid agencies was therefore to not only respond to stakeholder expectations in ways that promoted an effective service delivery process, but also balance between the stakeholder expectations, to ensure agencies’ credibility was not undermined. Responding to the changes in the macro environment was considered especially difficult, as the task of examining and interpreting trends was complex, and appropriate responses hard to determine. 4. From the evidence gathered, it is clear that organisational factors within aid agencies and contextual factors influence the process of service delivery. Thus, for aid agencies and others involved in development assistance, evaluating project work by focusing on the outputs and outcomes of specific projects and on the capabilities of development clients and partner agencies in developing countries begs half the issue. The context for success or failure is much broader. A wholistic critical examination of organisational factors within aid agencies and the contexts within which agencies operate ought to be included in any assessment of development outcomes. Such an assessment will enable practitioners to account for mismatches between intentions and outcomes of development initiatives in a comprehensive way. Any assessment short of these factors will always be inadequate. The significance of such an extensive critical evaluation of the outcomes of the work of aid agencies, would be the development of an elaborate guide to good development management practices that aid agencies can use to improve on their performance.
- ItemManaging International Development Agencies (IDAs)(www.Management-Journal.com, ) Kiraka, Ruth; Manning, Karen; Armstrong, AnonaInternational development agencies (IDAs) operate in a context of diverse stakeholder interests. This requires them to consider the significance of each category of stakeholders to determine the level of interest and power to influence the operations of the IDA. Using interviews and mail questionnaires, fifty-six Australian-based IDAs were examined to determine the extent to which they perceive external stakeholders as influencing their work. The research showed that two categories of stakeholders – donors and governments, were considered the most influential and powerful, hence the need to give priority to their expectations and needs. The “weaker” stakeholders – development clients and partner agencies, had a high level of interest but low power of influence over IDAs. However, they legitimise the existence of IDAs, hence their needs cannot be overlooked. The challenge for the IDA is in balancing the needs of its different categories of stakeholders as ignoring some could result in undermining its credibility.
- ItemMicro, small and medium enterprise growth and innovation in Kenya: a case study on the Women Enterprise FundKiraka, Ruth; Kobia, Margaret; Katwalo, Allan M.This study sought to examine the growth and innovation in micro, small and medium enterprises in Kenya by assessing the performance of the Women Enterprise Fund (WEF) on these dimensions. The WEF, a Government of Kenya initiative, aims to develop and grow women-owned MSMEs. Five years since its inception in 2007, it is imperative to establish whether the Fund is achieving its objectives in reaching the intended beneficiaries with the right kind of funding and support. Using a mixed method approach, comprising qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the study examined the performance of the Fund at the micro, meso and macro levels. Fourteen constituencies in four Counties – Kakamega, Nairobi, Nakuru and Nyeri – were purposively selected. Stratified random sampling (the strata being the borrowing stream) of the entrepreneurs was used to ensure representativeness of the sample. Questionnaires were used in the survey of women owned MSMEs in combination with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with selected respondent groups. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. Descriptive results show the extent of growth and innovation in the post loan period. Multivariate regression analysis sought to empirically establish the determinants of growth and innovation among women owned enterprises. Logistic regression models for the selected measures of growth and innovation were estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation technique. Qualitative data were content analysed for emerging themes and patterns which formed the basis for discussing study findings. Study findings show that although the general indicators reflect positive growth among women owned businesses in terms of total business worth, turnover, gross profit and number of employees, they obscure incidences of stagnation or decline in growth. Incidences of decline or stagnation were significant at between 15 to 30 percent across the four measures. The most common form of innovation was observed in the change or addition of new products in the post loan period. Innovations in terms of services, markets and sources of raw materials were, however, less common among women owned enterprises. The study finds no evidence of significant differences in growth and innovation among enterprises across geographical regions, borrowing stream and age groups. Overall, entrepreneur characteristics such as age, marital status, level of education and family size were poor determinants of growth. Business characteristics such as location, the person who manages the businesses and the age of the loans, were significant determinants of growth in the number of employees. Growth in number of employees is considered a critical proxy for the other forms of growth in terms of total business worth, turnover and gross profit. From the findings, locating an enterprise in an urban area increased the likelihood that the business would either stagnate on decline in its number of employees and gross profit. Urban decline on these indicators was partly attributed to heightened competition among low-end enterprises which characterise most women owned ventures in urban slums and informal settlements. Similar to the case in growth, entrepreneur characteristics of age, marital status, level of education and family size were poor determinants of business innovation. Only some of the business characteristics, growth factors and innovation factors were found to be significant determinants of innovation. Overall, women owned enterprises in urban areas lack the expected ‘urban advantage’ in terms of growth and innovation. The most widely provided complementary service was training which was accessed by one half of women entrepreneurs in the study. Other common complementary services included general education and awareness on how to run business and business progress monitoring. Although reported in interviews and group discussions, the following complementary services were rarely offered: networking, exhibitions, export promotion and product certification, supplementary loans, mobile banking and overdrafts. From the findings, it can ii be deduced that besides training, few complementary services were available to the majority of women borrowers of the WEF loans at a level that could meaningfully sustain businesses on the growth path and spur innovations. The Fund continued to face numerous challenges at the WEF secretariat, lender and borrower levels. The main challenges at the Fund level included inadequate WEF field personnel, inadequate fieldwork facilitation, low loan amounts, delays in disbursements and an inefficient multi-layered Fund structure. High cost of loan administration, competition with commercial bank products, poor dissemination of information, high demand/limited scope of coverage, lack of distinct product branding, lack of individual choices in group lending, high default rates, bureaucratic processes and limited business monitoring were the main challenges at lender level. For the borrowers, the challenges included limited and shrinking markets/competition, lack of business knowledge, misconception about the purpose of the Fund, diversion of the funds, low literacy among segments of women borrowers, lack of loan securities and domestic interference. To reform the Fund in a way that enhances its quality, service delivery and sustainability, as well as the growth and innovation of the enterprises, the study recommends that there should be: improved field level staffing at WEF, improved business monitoring, allocation of more resources to field teams, provision of individual loans, increase in amounts of loans, enhanced and standardised training, development of legal framework for default recoveries, increased funding to the CWES stream, business incubators for start-ups, enhanced revolving funds, rationalization of administrative costs, increase in the number of loan holding banks, timely disbursement of the funds and simplification of the application process.
- ItemMobile application for sharing patient data across health facilitiesBore, Nelson Kipbichii; Ateya, Ismail Lukandu; Orero, Joseph Onderi; Kiraka, RuthInformation technology has tremendously improved healthcare delivery with the implementations of electronic medical record system (EMRs). It has allowed health facilities to document interactions with patients, view medical records and recording of laboratory tests. Despite the widely documented benefits of EMRs, many health practitioners are still faced with a number of challenges: Patient data cannot be shared across health facilities and clinicians cannot enter patient data in real time to EMRs hence lack of real time patient medical history. Currently, EMRs' are hospital dependent and they cannot communicate with other hospitals to share information when necessesary. This makes it hard for health practitioners to share patient data and access medical history which aids in patients diagnosis. This research sought to investigate why hospitals cannot share patient data yet they have EMR systems implemented and also identify some of the possible platforms that are there for sharing patient data across different hospitals. To achieve this , the author sent out pre questionnaire to get general information on sharing ofpatient data. Findings indicated that there is no system that health officers can use to share patient data across health centers. A total of66% agreed that there is need of sharing data and they are currently using patient notes to share patient data , this implied that there is need for a system to share patient data. This research developed a mobile application as a proof of concept for sharing data across health centers, the application was then distributed via Google play store for users to download and test. Test findings indicated that 53% strongly agreed that the application was usable and able to share patient data effectively, this meant that having such a system many people will find it useful. Despite the high possibility ofadoption, there were also challenges that could hinder its wide usage that were found e.g. lack of a modular EMR system implemented in hospitals. With the availability of modular EMR implemented in the hospital, the proposed mobile application for sharing patient data across health centers could be of help. This would allow health practitioners to record , access and share patient data with ease across all the different health centers that the patient will visit. This solution will improve the whole interaction of health practitioners with patient data, improve the speed of recording patient observation and provide meaningful tracking of patient data over time.
- ItemMotives for starting and sustaining BDS : empirical evidence KenyaOtieno, Hellen; Olomi, Donath R.; Kiraka, RuthThe paper explains what motivates Business Development Services Providers (BDSPs) in Kenya to venture into and sustain their businesses. The study was done through the use of grounded theory methodology on eleven BDSPs in Kenya over twelve months between May 2008 and August 2010. The start-up motives were classified into three: extrinsic, intrinsic and philanthropic. Contrary to the dominant view that small business start-ups are driven principally by economic necessity, the study revealed that some BDSPs venture into and sustain their businesses mainly for intrinsic and philanthropic motives. These findings suggest that evaluation of sustainable BDS business should not be limited to the traditional economic theory of recovering costs but should take into account intrinsic and philanthropic rewards as well. The study enhances our understanding of “start-up motives” and “success” and in particular in the context of small firms. This knowledge is invaluable to scholars, teachers and policy makers involved in promoting small firms.