|dc.creator||Odhiambo, John W.||
|dc.date||Wed, 28 Nov 2012||
|dc.date||Wed, 28 Nov 2012 18:11:46||
|dc.date||Wed, 28 Nov 2012 18:11:46||
|dc.description.abstract||Universities play a crucial role in society as producers and transmitters of knowledge.
In recent years the discussion whether academia can encompass a third mission of
enterprise development, in addition to research and teaching, has received greater
attention (Mansfield,1995;Branscomb et al, 1999; Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000).
Much of the current debate on university-industry links focuses on a narrow range of
activities such as spin-offs and start-ups from universities and higher education
institutes, and the licensing of intellectual property. However, as many authors have
noted, university-industry links embrace a much broader spectrum of activities than
commercialization of intellectual property rights ( Agrawal and Henderson, 2002;
Mowery and Sampat, 2003; Cohen et al, 2002;Schartinger et al, 2001). In particular,
Cohen et al (2002), using the data from the Carnegie Mellon Survey of R&D
performing firms in the US, highlighted that for most industries, patents and licenses
were of lower importance as channels for conveying public research to industry
compared to publications, conferences, informal interactions and consulting. In
addition, Schartinger et al (2001) and Roessner(1993) have shown that patenting
and licensing account for a low proportion of university- industry interactions when
compared to other formal arrangements such as contract research or joint research
In this paper the interface between universities and industry is studied as a way of
responding to the economic needs of society in the twenty-first century through
academic entrepreneurship i.e. the variety of ways in which universities take direct
part in the commercialization of knowledge through the supply of creative research
and inventions. This university-industry interaction will help the industry deal with
financial pressure to reduce costs and increase efficiency; increased competition and
rising customer expectations. It will also enhance the ability of universities to deal
with global competition in the academic market place; pressure to diversify financing
sources; and rising demands from students and society for quality and relevant
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|dc.subject||University -- industry partnership||
|dc.title||University –Industry Partnership: meeting the challenges of the 21st century||