A Framework for Optimizing Adoption of ICT Tools by Health Focused NGOs in Kenya.
Baru, John W.
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The extent of lCT use in health- focused NGOs has been on the increase in the last two decades. The number of NGOs has been increasing at a rate of about 400 NGOs per year since 2001. There are approximately over 6,000 NGOs in Kenya of which 22% are health-oriented NGOs. lCT use improves the efficiency of business operations in response to pressure from stakeholders and opportunities offered by lCT in improving business processes, among other benefits. The lCT sector has also developed better and more user friendly applications for use in the health- focused organizations. It is important to examine adoption and optimization of lCT in health- focused NGO in light of the challenges commercial organizations have had while adopting lCT. The aim of the study was to propose a framework that will optimize ICT adoption by health focused NGOs. This will contribute to the ongoing efforts of ensuring that NGOs reap maximum benefits from the lCT investments already made. This research also attempted to provide a framework on how these NGOs can re-align the lCT investments already in place and any other future lCT investments. The case study design was used and data collected using primary and secondary data sources with the management at the three management levels (strategic, tactical and operations, that is, SOT levels) in Bomu Medical Centre in February 2012. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17; content analysis was used for qualitative data while descriptives were used for quantitative data. From the case study, the main lCT tools at the operations level were standby computers, printers, scanners, excel spreadsheets, Hospital Management information system, accounting and payroll software. At the tactical level, management mostly utilized some K'T reports from Hospital Information System. There was also use of other applications such payroll system, accounting system among others. The main weakness was inadequate linking of these lCT systems which led to inefficiencies. The study designed a framework to re- align the lCT tools to optimize adoption of the. lCT systems which was validated using the Technology Acceptance Model of lCT adoption. The most important variables in' lCT adoption was perceived usefulness of proposed systems, improved user friendliness in the new system and positive attitude to the proposed lCT system by the management. Other factors include knowledge of derived benefits, lCT literacy by employees and the targeted community. The study has come up with several proposal on lCT tools to adopt and to realign the current lCT tools using the proposed framework..