MDIS Theses and Dissertations (2020)

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    Intelligence aspects of big data analytics for Kenya national security
    (Strathmore University, 2020-11) Njoroge, Ann Wangechi
    In the age of rapid technological advancement, the range of threats to national security have evolved, becoming more complex and diverse, while the duty of the government remains that of securing its country. With the exponential rise in amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data generated every day, big data has become a core competence for the government which is linked to national security and the operations of the intelligence community. Big data provides intelligence organizations the opportunity to increase their investigative capabilities to combat threats to national security by enabling them to collect, analyze and disseminate information at a pace which could not be as effective in the traditional era. Governments will however be faced with the challenge of developing new capabilities to exploit and manage big data, which will require a rigorous review of the existing intelligence models and processes. The aim of this study is to examine the scope of applicability of big data and analytics in the functioning of the intelligence community, with a focus on the intelligence cycle. It also looks at the ethical and technical issues that limit the use of big data and analytics for national security. An exploratory research design was used to provide insight from the national security organs and intelligence community in Kenya on the applicability of Big Data and Analytics for national security. The study established that big data and analytics have a statistically significant effect on the intelligence cycle and national security organizations should embrace this new technology since it provides a lot of actionable insights. Based on this study it is recommended that the government enact more legislation to help develop an efficient and effective policy infrastructure for the various stakeholders in the intelligence community.
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    Comparative analysis of intelligence oversight mechanisms in East African Community [EAC] states
    (Strathmore University, 2020-12) Isaiah, Otieno Omburo;
    National security intelligence agencies across East Africa have undergone many reforms from the period of decolonization, during and after the Cold War, the eras of state rebuilding in some of the post conflict states and in the current age of heightened counterterrorism campaigns. National security sector reforms in the East African Community (EAC) have largely been dependent on national socio-political circumstances. However, there are also several overarching factors which have informed national security intelligence reforms which include the drive towards making the agencies more accountable in the EAC. Despite various reforms, intelligence oversight mechanisms in the EAC are either partly or not being implemented at all. The EAC states have also undertaken several steps towards intelligence collaboration especially with the persistent threat of international terrorism. Consequently, the necessity for effective and legitimate intelligence collection among the states in such relationships has become a pertinent question in intelligence collaboration. Part of the bumpy ride towards opening up of national intelligence services for scrutiny in EAC is the perennial question of regime security especially in the postconflict states in the region. This study comparatively assesses different intelligence oversight regimes in the EAC states and attendant issues arising out various oversight mechanisms which are currently being implemented in the region. The study adopted a descriptive case study methodology exploiting qualitative primary and secondary data to evaluate intelligence oversight regimes in the region. The study examined universal intelligence oversight mechanisms and practices, the forms of the intelligence community in the EAC states and assessed the post-independent intelligence oversight mechanisms in the region. The study established that different EAC states have statutorily established executive, parliamentary and judicial oversight mechanisms for their national intelligence services. However, there are contextual differences in terms of the actual practice of intelligence oversight across the EAC. These differences in intelligence oversight regimes across the region are influenced by factors including political and intelligence cultures in the EAC states.
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    Multi-agency cooperation in combating terrorism in the aviation industry in Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2020) Edna, Nyatichi Omweno
    Terrorists’ acts against the civil aviation industry have remained sustained over a period of time. The devastating effects of a successful attack transcend the jurisdictions of many states, threatening their national and human security. The transnational nature of these attacks has led to states cooperating under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to come up with standard measures to address the same. The devastating effects of the 9/11 attacks led to a review of the existing legal and regulatory responses which were found to be largely reactional and ineffective. A new thinking was introduced which embraced responses that were proactive in nature and that encouraged a multi-layered security structure. Being a signatory to ICAO, Kenya has not only domesticated the new thinking but also operationalized it by establishing the Border Coordination and Operations Control Committee (BCOCC) - a multi agency working framework. This study sought to empirically examine Multi-Agency Cooperation (MAC) and its implications on aviation security in Kenya. It attempted to answer the question whether the adoption of multi-agency cooperation as an approach to security in Kenya’s aviation industry had enhanced aviation security in light of terrorist threats. The specific objectives were; to examine the evolution of the aviation industry and the terror threat within it; to analyze the evolution of the responses adopted to combat terrorism in the industry and to examine how the multi-agency cooperation strategy is functioning to enhance and facilitate effective counter terrorism strategies in Kenya’s aviation industry. Similarly, the study sought to establish the relationship between international aviation security law and domestic aviation security. It employed a descriptive case study methodology and largely used qualitative data supplemented by quantitative data collected from multiple sources namely; questionnaires, interviews, document reviews and observation methods. The study established that the improvement of the international civil aviation security program has consequently led to the improvement of Kenya’s aviation security system in combating terrorism. However, whereas the multi-agency adopted from the international system by the aviation security has played a significant role in enhancing and facilitating counterterrorism strategies; it faces legal and structural challenges that need to be addressed in order to strengthen it further.
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    Border diplomacy and territorial disputes in the IGAD Region: a case study of Kenya
    (Strathmore University, 2020) Ndirangu, Josphat Gitonga
    Territorial disputes have serious ramifications on the national security of the State especially when not effectively addressed. Africa and the Horn of Africa are prone to border related conflicts owing to the colonial borders that were inherited upon independence and which do not reflect the ethnic and religious diversities that existed prior to colonization. This study investigated territorial threats in the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development region with special focus on Kenya. It also focused on specific border threats and how Kenya policy makers have responded to the threats using border diplomacy as the focal point. The study used a conceptual of analysis in order meet its goals and objectives. The study aimed at establishing if border diplomacy has been fully utilised to resolve existing territorial disputes that have faced Kenya. In doing so, both primary and secondary data was collected in the research. Interviews were conducted to gather primary data from key stakeholders in the field of border diplomacy and national security. Data collected was analysed using framework analysis. The study found out that territorial disputes present great security challenges to the national security of Kenya. These disputes are largely triggered by the trans-boundary resources with the underlying cause being the colonial legacy of borders drawing. Largely, Kenya has employed a mix of hard and soft approaches when dealing with territorial disputes. However, it was established that the country has not been aggressive enough in using diplomacy to resolve the current territorial disputes with Somalia and Uganda. The study recommends aggressive application of border diplomacy by Kenya in order to effectively address the territorial disputes that faces the country.
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    Coordination in multi agency response to international terrorism in Kenya: a comparison of Dusit d2 and Westgate terror attacks
    (Strathmore University, 2020) Musoma, Albert Lusiola
    Kenya has in the last decade been faced by a constant terror threat from al-Shabaab, ISIS and al Qaeda. This study sets out to assess responses to international terrorism in Kenya. It draws a comparison of the Dusit D2 and Westgate terror attacks. The study questions were as follows: Are there existing or lack thereof of multi-agency strategic policies on coordination in response to international terrorism in Kenya? Are there existing or lack thereof of structural and legal frameworks guiding multi-agency operations on countering international terrorism in Kenya? And what are the successes and failures borne out of having/not having multi-agency laws, policies, doctrines and strategies regarding terror response coordination? The study adopted mixed methods and exploratory research designs. The target population was all the members of the KDF SoFs, the NPS Recce squad, and ATPU Officers as well as policy level Military, Intelligence and Police Officers. The target population is estimated at 3400 personnel from which a sample of 97 was obtained. The used primary data collected from the respondents using mainly questionnaires and interviews as well as secondary data that was obtained from library-based research via books, e-books, journals, government publications, and published thesis, among other reputable academic publications. The data collected from questionnaires were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. The findings were presented in descriptive statistics, tables, graphs, charts and inferential statistics. On its part, data from interviews were analyzed thematically based on the objectives so as to establish the key themes and trends from which findings, conclusions, and recommendations were drawn. The study findings make it manifest that strategic multi-agency policy on coordination in response to terrorism in Kenya enhances coordination in response to international terrorism. In this light, the level to which Kenyan security agents are guided by well formulated and clear policies in their response affects the quality of their coordination to international terrorism and vice versa. Additionally, the existence of structural and legal frameworks guiding multi-agency operations on countering terrorism in Kenya had led to effective response through standardizations of operation guidelines, better sharing of information, joint training and exchange of best practices among the various responders. This was evidenced in the Dusit D2 Attack in which synchronization of operations showed better response to the attack by the various operational and tactical teams as compared to the Westgate Attack. The study recommends that: the multiagency response teams should constantly review their operation guidelines and standard operating procedures so as to deal with the ever-changing sophistication in terrorist attacks; the government should put in place ways aimed at checking disparities in capabilities and equipment among various tactical and intelligence teams in Kenya for uniform response to terrorism; there is need for multinational frameworks for undertaking financing and creation of joint information infrastructure for security agencies so as to reign in on international terrorism in the East African Region; there is need for mobile-based applications to enhance real-time information sharing among intelligence and tactical teams on terrorism-related issues during operations; E-policing and rapport with the community should be enhanced so as to enhance sharing of information between police officers and the community on terrorism-related issues and There should also be measures aimed at regulating the use of social media in response to terrorism.