A Critical analysis of the National intelligence community in the war on terrorism in Kenya
Ainea, Judy Marebe
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There have been concerted efforts by the National intelligence community to fight terrorism in Kenya in the wake of rampant terrorist attacks. This study sets out to critically analyses the role of the intelligence community in the war on terrorism in Kenya. Its objectives are to examine the effectiveness of the intelligence community to combat terrorism in Kenya; establish the causes of intelligence community failures in the fight against terrorism in Kenya and; suggest ways in which the efficacy of intelligence community in Kenya can be enhanced. Based on the rational choice theory, this study adopts the exploratory and descriptive research designs. The target population is the personnel employed in the security agencies intelligence agencies and intelligence communities: Kenya defense Forces (KDF), Kenya Police services, military intelligence services and national intelligence services in Kenya estimated at 400 persons. Out of these, a sample of 90 persons were obtained proportionately using the purposive sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data collection techniques were employed. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data. Additionally, relevant secondary data was obtained from reports, journals and books among publications. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in data analysis. In this regard, the data collected from questionnaires were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. This was done through the help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. The findings were presented in charts and tables. Conversely, qualitative data analysis was guided by Miles and Huberman’s framework of thematic analysis. The method suggests the use of four critical steps intended for extracting meanings from data collected from participants. The findings show that there were improvements in intelligence gathering in Kenya. However, the efficiency with which the intelligence community operated was challenged by poor coordination mechanisms. Bureaucracies also challenged information dissemination within the counterterrorism agencies and organizations. There were limitations related to missed or delayed signals. Lack of sufficient numbers of intelligence personnel also limited the efficiency of the intelligence community. Corruption also created security vulnerabilities since it lead to compromise of intelligence operations. Poor interagency cooperation has also limited the capacity of the intelligence community. Poor regional and international policy frameworks mean that joint counterterrorism initiatives could not be implemented effectively. Inadequate financing and training also limited the responsiveness of the intelligence community to the dynamism of terrorism. The challenge of training has also negatively impacted on the intelligence end product which has as a result compromised counterterrorism operations. Challenges related to local legislation means that the intelligence community operated in a vacuum. Several recommendations were made. These include: regular training to of the intelligence community; strengthening cooperation with regional and international intelligence organizations; enacting facilitative laws to limit legal constraints; implementing interagency cooperation strategies; ensuring adequate financing; deploying enough personnel and establishing a terrorism research department.