The effect of globalization on C02 emissions in the East African community member countries
Akhwale, June Anachoni
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Given that the East African Community continuous to expand and grow economically, this has led to an increase in globalisation and urbanisation in the region hence it is foreseeable that these changes would have an effect on the environment in the region. This study sought to investigate the impact of globalisation on C02 emissions in East African Community member countries with globalisation, gross domestic product per capita and energy consumption as control variables and urbanisation as a moderating variable. Furthennore, the study sought to find the moderating effect of urbanisation on the relationship between globalisation and C02 emissions and to shed light on the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis of the region. Using panel data, the study sought to explore these objectives for the period between 1990 to 2014 in Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. The pooled ordinary least squares regression model was utilized to estimate the parameters in the model and as a result, it was found globalisation and C02 emissions have a negative relationship and urbanisation has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between globalisation and C02 emissions. Moreover, the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not follow for the region. The study recommended that C02 reduction policies should be put in place and adopting of new teclmologies that help reduce pollution should be used to reduce the effect of C02 emissions in the region. Furthermore, the region needs to promote and facilitate economic-friendly globalisation and urbanisation to improve and sustain economic development without any ecological degradation.