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- ItemAn exploratory comparison of business leadership in Irish and Kenyan successful managers.(Strathmore University, 2008) D'Souza , Fina; Byrne, GabrielThe aim of this study was to benchmark Kenyan management against Irish management. Recent trends in cross cultural global business have shown that the managers’ role has become more complex in the context of business performance, than it has been in the past. Personal values of people in general form an important part of character and therefore a deeper analysis of managers’ personal values seems warranted. The paper compares the personal values of successful Kenyan and Irish managers with a view to discussing the role played by managers’ personal values in the current global business environment. The data of successful managers from both countries has been used in the study. The study gives a brief overview of the academic literature on personal values and value theory. It also makes an evaluation of leadership and outlines the relationship between leadership and personal values, as well as the effect of leadership on the performance of firms. The findings from the data received from both groups are then reported. Two methods of scholarship were used in the study, namely, the work of Schwartz and Personal Values and the Gravesian levels or Memes. Using the Colour Code approach of Graves’ work, observations were made on Kenyan and Irish managers. The paper draws conclusions of comparison between Irish and Kenyan managers and the implications of this comparison are discussed. The implications for further study have been stated.
- ItemStructural sources of constitutional conflicts: a conflict analysis of constitution-making in Kenya, 1997-2005(2008) Mudida, RobertThe study investigates the structural sources of constitutional conflicts in Kenyan society by examining the process and content debates in the constitutional review process that took place between 1997 and 2005. The study is based on the premise that a country's constitution is a fundamental pillar on which the society is structured. The study applies the structural violence theoretical framework to provide a deeper insight into Kenya's constitutional debates. It develops the hypothesis that an anomalous constitution engenders structural violence in society. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to carry out the study. Non-probability stratified sampling is used in the study. This study argues that the existing Kenya constitution is a fundamental source of structural violence in Kenya. Constitutional conflicts arise because the constitution does not address many of the concerns of its citizens such as equitable distribution of resources and the protection of individual and minority rights. The study also contends that the process of constitution-making and the content of the constitution are inextricably linked. A defective process leads to an anomalous constitution. The study also finds that attempts to address constitutional conflicts in Kenya have often been settlement rather than resolution-oriented thereby rendering them less effective. Constitution-making is eminently a political process and both the Kenyan political landscape and the broader political context of African states need to be considered to adequately appreciate Kenya's constitutional conflicts.
- ItemA study on events management outsourcing in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Kamau, PaulineOutsourcing has been growing steadily in Kenya following a conscious effort by the Government of Kenya (GoK) to create an enabling environment for the industry as part of its long-term strategic goal. Despite this growth however, most Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) still prefer to organize and manage their events in-house by assigning the task to a staff member who may not have events management expertise. This ends up being very daunting and stressful as planning a good event is time consuming. It is with this background in mind, that the study attempted to establish the business prospects in events management outsourcing among NGOs in Kenya. In doing this, it was important to bear in mind that when prospecting for business, events management will be an outsourced function. Consequently, apart from purely dwelling on the intricacies of events management, a methodical approach to discover what will drive organizations to outsource this function was crucial. This is because the decision to outsource any service is a major strategic one for most organizations and it involves weighing the potential cost savings against the consequences of a loss in control over the product or service. There were two underlying principles guiding the study i.e. the analysis of events management and critical success factors (csf) in outsourcing of events management. They guided the formulation of several hypotheses based on the research questions. These were to characterize how events are currently organized by NGOs in terms of the frequency of events, size, type and additional items and services required. Furthermore, it sought to find out what will drive organizations to outsource the events management function. From the empirical study, there are great prospects for events management services to NGOs in Kenya especially for organizing conferences/workshops/seminars. Additionally, NGOs give preference to what they consider their drivers of outsourcing. The other two areas used to measure i.e. benefits expected and the service provider's capacity have the same influence on the decision to outsource. Finally, it is important to appreciate that most NGOs subscribe to their donors' ideals and therefore have no hand in major decision making regarding their mode of operation. As a first step, it is imperative to target the donor organizations to buy the idea of outsourcing their events. Once the donors are persuaded to go the outsourcing way a major barrier to entry is eliminated which will then open up a world of opportunities for a prospective entrepreneur.
- ItemAn exploratory of capital requirements for Kenyan life insurance companies(Strathmore University, 2009) Mung'ara, MaryAnne W.A new legislative requirement in the year 2007 raised the minimum paid up capital for all insurance companies. It is the adequacy of this requirement that this study sought to explore from the industry players. The study was guided by the following general objective: To explore the adequacy of the legislative minimum capitalization of Life Insurance Companies in Kenya. The study focused on all the Life Insurance companies in Kenya, the study respondents being the Chief Executive Officers, who are charged with the responsibility of charting the strategic direction of the respective Life Insurance Companies. A case study design was used with a questionnaire as the main data collection tool. In addition, interviews were used to clarify the responses. The data was analyzed by employing descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means scores and standard deviations. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to aid in analysis. The findings of the study show that despite the increase in minimum capital requirement for various categories of insurance companies, the minimum required capital amounts still fell below expectations and higher figures were suggested. Indeed the increase in minimal capital requirements had not had significant effect join the business of the life insurance companies. There is thus need to involve all industry stakeholders in order to arrive at minimum capital requirements that would be agreeable to all, for enhanced effectiveness in the industry.
- ItemEmployee retention in local kenyan banks(Strathmore University, 2009) Njuguna, Ann Wanguihis dissertation is a qualitative single-case study of a local Kenyan hank and has the following objectives: first, to identify the business model in use and its connection to employee retention: and second, to identify and evaluate the employee retention tactics currently used by banks that serve the high-risk market segment. A review of several literature was done and it was established that business models explain how enterprises work and how they make money. The production line and empowerment approaches were identified as the two business models in use in the service industry. Despite the business model in use, retaining employees with tacit firm-specific knowledge was identified as a potential avenue for reducing hiring and training costs, and improving sales growth and share price. It was also established that the Kenyan banking industry not only works against a backdrop of bank failures, hut also in a market whose largest client proportion is considered high-risk. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews of seven former and one current Equity Rank employees. The findings from the interviews suggest that Equity Bank employs a low-cost high-volume business model. The retention challenges posed by this model originate from a conflict between the organisation needing to keep its costs low and the demand by frontline and back office employees — the majority — for salaries that commensurate the high volumes they handle. In the long term, the researcher recommends that management considers using technology to reduce client traffic or recruiting staff who may be willing to take the low pay but for part-time work. The findings also suggest that Equity Bank uses both financial and non-financial incentives to encourage its employees to stay. Overall, continued use of financial incentives that enable employees to improve their quality of life, and non-financial incentives that create a sense of belonging and appreciation is recommended. Finally. the majority of dissatisliers that cause turnover or create intent to leave in employees seem to relate to management and if resolved. Equity Bank can have a higher retention rate.
- ItemA Survey of youth's development in the services offered by microfinance institutions in Nairobi, Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Mngolia, Anna W.This study was set out to determine youth's participation i the services offered by the micro finance institutions in Nairobi, Kenya. About half a million youth graduate each year from various tertiary institutions ready to enter the job market. However, only 25% of them get absorbed in formal employment, leading to a rapid growth in crime, drug and substance abuse among the youth. This can be attributed to the frustration that comes with idleness and a lack of gainful employment. The interests and needs of the youth have no0t received as much attention or funding as those of other vulnerable groups, like women in Kenya. Micro finance institutions have traditionally focused on women as their target customers for their financial products and programs. Over time, the small and the micro finance enterprise sector has emerged as the main source of employment. This research is motivated by my interest in the micro finance sector and its capacity to help poor women. It seems to me that a youth micro finance institution might, if properly set up, also be of similar benefit to young persons. While general research on micro finance has been carried out,little is known about the participation of youth in micro finance. The study has used a quantitative approach to yield data that could give me the quantitative information about the way in which, the youth and the micro finance institutions in Nairobi are relating to each other. The main instruments for collecting data were questionnaires and interviews. There was also qualitative dimension to my research as I sought to understand the ways in which the youth and MFIs perceived and related to each other, which I hoped could give me some clues regarding the possibility of a youth MFI. my sources of primary data included books, reports, magazine articles, websites and newspaper articles related to micro finance. An important observation of the study is that given the right policy framework and an enabling environment, youth micro finance institutions could be a possibility. It sets a stage for conducting a country-wide survey.
- ItemThe Use of regulatory policies in the fight against money laundering in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Omari, YusufIt was found necessary to undertake this study so as to bridge the knowledge gap on fighting Money Laundering in Kenya using Regulatory policies. Money laundering has been identified as a major impediment to development in most countries and financial institutions have been identified as the main transmission channel used by money launders. The objective of the study was to examine the Regulatory mechanisms that Kenya has adopted in dealing with Money Laundering and to suggest ways of enhancing the effectiveness of these mechanisms to serve as veritable models for other African states. Two research questions relating to the primary research objectives have been determined. The study focused on the nine Banks listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (See Appendix II). The study respondents were the Compliance Heads of the listed banks. In addition, the study has also included two telecommunication service providers that are licensed to undertake money transfer services. These are: - Safaricom and Zain. The study utilized a qualitative technique in the collection of secondary and primary data. A semi-structured questionnaire (having both open and closed questions) was used in collecting data. The information was presented and discussed as per the objectives and research questions of the study. The seven Propositions that had been formulated were confirmed by a majority of the respondents. Findings of the study indicates that majority of the Financial Institutions have adopted the main core principles of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 40 recommendations. The factors influencing adoption of money laundering practices in Kenya was identified mainly as the respective organisations corporate governance policies (Ethical practices). Results further suggests that the challenges faced in implementation of money laundering regulatory policies among financial institutions in Kenya are mainly: Structural Displacement factors (i.e. cash based economy, lack of cooperation by countries due to different legal systems, Inadequate resources to control porous borders and corruption); Legal and institutional framework challenges and to some extent the Perceived Cost of implementing an AML regime.
- ItemAn Investigation into demand for life insuarance in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Muchiri, FrankLife insurance is an issue of concern to many Kenyans, insurance firms and government. Life insurance includes a range of social an financial services needed by individuals who need to secure the continued financial and social security of their families and dependants after the insured has died. Research on the market penetration of firms has been a key focus of organizational studies since the 1960s but has only more recently attracted more recently attracted the attention of life insurance practitioners. In spite of the increasing importance that life insurance has in mobilizing savings, covering life risks and providing term finance, it is not yet understood well what drives this demand. A number of authors have proposed a variety of different socio-economic and institutional factors as possible determinants of life insurance penetration such as income, demography, distribution to mention a few. The main objective of the study was to investigate the demand for life insurance in Kenya and sought to establish the determinant factors for the demand for life insurance by using national survey on data financial access of 2006. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken based on which a conceptual framework was developed as basis of the formulation of hypothesis. Research methodology stating the research method, research design and description of secondary data to be used in the research analysis were formulated. Using secondary data, Logit model was used to estimate regression equation to test hypothesis. The resulting estimations demonstrate that the demand of life insurance is determined by age, gender, secondary and primary education, university education, location, income and household size. The study finally looks at the limitation of this study, recommendation and conclusion which indicates that some of the test variables affect demand on life insurance in Kenya, there is need for further comprehensive research to test more variable particularly on the supply side. The study findings (See Appendix D) will form the basis for technical and policy advice to the Insurance Regulatory Authority, Association of Kenya Insurers and the Government with a view of understanding demand for life insurance in Kenya.
- ItemAn Exploratory study of the factors that influence the capital structures of real estate firms in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Munene, Abraham MuriukiThe dissertation is a qualitative study on the factors that influence the capital structures of real estate firms in Kenya. Real estate companies engage in either or both the following activities : assets growth which is long term and /or profit maximization which is short term. The life of real estate companies follows a life cycle similar to the product life cycle and their capital structure changes at each stage of the life cycle dependent on the time orientation of the firm. As real estate firms approach a mature phase in the life cycle, they tend to change their time orientation to incorporate both short and long-term objectives. The overall objective of this study si to understand the dynamics that influence the capital structure of real estate firms in Kenya with focus on Nairobi. The study developed a conceptual research framework and examined the main variables within it. Four research questions that related to the objective of the study were identified. A comprehensive literature review was constructed. The qualitative research related to six in-depth semi-structured interviews with respondents who were highly experienced in the real estate and financial sector in Kenya. The propositions that were outlined positively correlated with capital structure of real estate companies in Kenya. Conclusion, implications and recommendations were completed and statements and recommendations for further study made. The circular research process was completed and indicated the capital structure of real estate companies in Kenya is dynamic as it changes at each stage of the life cycle of the firm. In addition, real estate companies evolve into a hybrid companies that have both short and long term profit and growth orientations.
- ItemAn Exploratoty study of corporate governance practices by funds management companies in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Kamanga, Benjamin MutukuThe dissertation is an exploratory study of corporate governance in fund management companies in Kenya. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which good governance is being practiced by fund managers in Kenya, and to assess the quality of those practices, with a view to providing data for developing effective programmes that might enable the sector to improve its standards of corporate governance. More specifically, the study sought to establish whether fund management companies can be considered to have adopted and implemented good corporate governance practices and , if so, to access the extent to which such practices have been adopted, how the companies are progressing in adopting best governance practices and the areas of governance that still need improvement. A review of relevant literature was done from which the conceptual framework of the study was developed and five prepositions were formulated. A structured questionnaire was used to guide in-depth interviews with senior managers of six leading fund management companies in Kenya. The study found out that there is a general appreciation, acceptance and commitment to good corporate governance and that the adoption of best practices has began to permeate fund management companies in Kenya but progress towards fully adoption and implementing good corporate governance is still in its infancy. The study also concluded that the quality of corporate governance by fund management companies is relatively underdeveloped; and, that to bring governance practices to internationally accepted levels the focus needs to shift from developing the codes and policies and regulations to developing structures and capacity, both in the companies and at the regulatory level. The study recommends, among other things, the establishment of appropriate board committees at company level, increasing the proportion of independent directors to majority, board and board committee evaluation, having corporate governance compliance office and the proper disclosure of both corporate governance practices and finnacial reports to all stakeholders.
- ItemA Descriptive study on demand for raw milk payment systems (evidence from Kenya)(Strathmore University, 2009) Riungu, Benson M.The main objectives of the study were to evaluate factors that have contributed to the adoption of unit weight as the current milk pricing and payment system in Kenya; and identity the challenges to the adoption of a pricing and payment system based on quality. I n quality based system, Multiple Component Pricing Policy is used by estimating 'the values of the three main milk components (fat, protein and lactose) as positive factors and bacteria and other contaminants as negative factors. Descriptive survey was adopted and semi - structured questionnaires were developed and administered by the researcher to sampled respondents. The population of interest consisted of milk processors who processed raw milk into three or more products from raw milk. The study was a survey of five companies that manufacture butter, ghee, cheese and whole milk powder in Kenya, out of which 4 responded. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, mean scores and standard deviation. The study revealed that local and export demands for milk and most dairy products were growing fast against slow growth in supply. The study also revealed that the government played an important role in price and regulatory policy formulation. Some of the challenges identified by processors in adopting quality based payment system were; volume of milk supplied, large number of small scale farmers, little awareness, poor infrastructure in the rural areas, logistics, technology and low instal1ed production capacity for manufacture of value added dairy products. The main benefits of the current weight based system were reported as; simplicity and ease of use, low cost, transparency and acceptability by farmers.
- ItemUnderstanding reduced private-sector participation in low-income housing delivery in Nairobi(Strathmore University, 2009) Hassanali, Farhana M.The case of affordable housing in Kenya is particularly acute and as decent housing remains inaccessible to the population, informal settlements and slums continue to grow as does the housing deficit. The situation has been particularly alleviated by the private sector, a major housing supplier in Kenya. However, these developers have dominated the middle and upper segments of the market, with only a small presence in the low-income segment. In light of this, the objectives of this research is to establish the basis of success of private sector developers in delivery of middle and upper segment housing; to analyze the low income housing segment in light of the critical success factors identifies; to identify key hindrances to the private sector for delivery of low-income housing and to establish possible solutions to improve this situation. The research is an exploratory study of a sample of a population, the latter being all private developers who have undertaken residential projects as commercial venture. The sample frame comprised 56 major players and a sample of 14 was selected through simple random sampling. The survey was administered through use of a semi-structured questionnaire. It emerged that major incentives to developers in the middle and upper segments were off-plan sales and strong economic growth as well as new finance structures. While strong economic growth also enhanced the low income market, finance components, that is off-plan sales and new finance structures did not hold as strong incentives in this market. Major disincentives to private developers in low-income market were cost of debt financing and (lack of ) off-plan sales leading to larger scales of investment, current infrastructure development and adherence to the building code. It further emerged that cheaper debt financing availability of end-financing and revision of the building code as possible solutions would increase private participation in low-income housing. The research generates strong implications for financial innovations and reform, policy and reform, infrastructure development, administrative reviews, business and academia. The circularity of the research process has been maintained, achieved and demonstrated in this dissertation.
- ItemEffectiveness of a loan recovery programme in a student financial organization : case of higher education loans board(Strathmore University, 2009) Achola, Fritz Noel ConradThe financing of higher education in Kenya has been a big challenge to the Government of Kenya, through Higher Education Loans Board (HELB – hereafter referred to as the Board ). There is a growing student population, rising costs of education and an increased dependency by students on financial assistance due to the slow growth of the economy and the impact of poverty levels in the country. This is to be seen against the background of dwindling finances from the Government, who have been the main financers of higher education (Source : Ministry of Education : Budget Estimates) The Board has recognized key challenges that it must put into account in its operations. These challenges include the need for HELB to mobilize funds and become a self-sustaining organization in the long term; increasing demand for loans by Kenyan students, particularly from private and self-sponsored students; the need to maximize the recovery of non-performing loans by entering into strategic partnerships which would assist in the netting of loanees; and the need to reduce the loan default rates. Alternative methods of raising funds urgently need to be looked into by the Board. Secondly, the Board has to deal with the problem of non-performing loans which now stands at 51% (source: HELB database, Loan portfolio analysis) of the outstanding loans. Ways have to b found to find effective ways of reducing the loan repayment default rate. The use of threats and/or incentives to increase long repayment could be the key. Lessons drawn from the banking industry in Kenya can also be used to reduce the loan default rate and the level of non-performing loans. This figure has dropped from a high of 40% in 1999 to 13.83% in 2006. The strategies used by the banks to reduce these figures can be replicated by HELB. The dissertation is therefore an exploratory research on the effectiveness of the Higher Educations Loans Board loan recovery program. The study main objective is to explore methods of improving loan recovery of the student loan scheme. Four research questions have been determined and they relate to the main objective. A review of related literature was conducted, which comprises background of student loan financing, loan default, benchmarking, loan recovery strategies, transformation of microfinance institutions into banks and other literature relating to issues on student loan financing. The gathering of primary data for the research was by use of a questionnaire whereby 40 loanees (ex-university student loan beneficiaries) responded. The propositions that were formulated pointed towards HELB benchmarking itself with banks for improved performance and being eventually transformed into a specialized learner’s bank to finance higher education. Conclusions, implications, limitations and recommendations were completed and statements were made on the findings.
- ItemIntegration of private providers in NHIF covered out patient care : factors affecting price of care(Strathmore University, 2009) Odero, Patricia M.The provision of health care to the citizens of a country presents important challenges in both, developed and developing countries. Many schemes have been proposed with the ultimate goal being ensuring equity and access to high quality health care, meaning universal coverage of the population. Since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 the crucial importance of primary health care is widely accepted in the fight towards reducing a population's burden of disease. This has been echoed again recently by the UN Millennium Development Coals! that deal with health care. The recent focus on both coverage and quality provision of primary health care, by Kenya's national social insurer, the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) has been taken as an occasion to have a closer look into the relevant related factors. As an example, the coverage of outpatient services by the NHIF was studied, with a particular focus on the inclusion of private providers in the provision of primary health care. The literature review showed that a variety of models of social health insurance, have been developed for Low and Middle Income countries (LMICs), where the specific successes of the Indian and Philippines concept were stressed, particularly their inclusion of private providers. The need of the population (demand) was linked with the availability of health care (supply), and the reimbursement (pricing) to private providers was analyzed in this context. With the unique characteristics of health care competition is difficult, and a series of market failures are present. These unique features include asymmetry of information, supplier induced demand, the concept of the third party payer, the often unrealised role of the government and the limited competition in health care. These important concepts have been taken into consideration in the study, as well as in the conclusions the end of the study. The findings of the data analysis and insights from additional open-ended interviews with industry experts identified factors affecting outpatient consultation for private providers in Nairobi, the willingness of these providers to be included in NHIF's outpatient scheme as well as proposed methods of payment to providers. The final conclusions of this study will be highly valuable to the decision making of industry stakeholders as they consider alternative models of payment for private providers of outpatient care as opposed to the standard rebate used currently.
- ItemNational Competitiveness of Kenya and its oil cluster(Strathmore University, 2009) Busiyile, Brian SimiyuOil is critical to western type civilization. The United States of America (USA), the icon of this civilization, uses up 24% of the world’s oil per day. Oil is critical for the global economy. Similarly, oil is the fulcrum of Kenya’s economy. Even though Kenya uses only 0.08% of the world’s oil per day, yet this small proportion drives investment, influences consumption and sets the pace of economic growth. Transport, power generation, manufacturing and agricultural sectors are dependent of the supply and affordability of petroleum products. Currently, about 22% of Kenya’s primary energy is drawn from oil. For this reason, it can be argued that the competitiveness of the Kenyan economy is directly linked to competitiveness of the oil industry. As Kenya embarks on the Vision 2030, any action that improves its competitiveness will accelerate the realization of this vision. In this dissertation, the ‘Theory of Competitive Advantage of Nations’ by Michael Porter, commonly referred to as the diamond model, has been applied to analyze the competitiveness of Kenya and its oil industry in order to identify challenges and opportunities and to recommend actions that stakeholders can and should take to enhance their competitiveness. Based on the diamond model and related variables adapted from the Global Competitiveness Report and Index data, an assessment of the competitiveness of Kenya and its oil cluster was undertaken. This dissertation first sought to identify the challenges and opportunities for Kenya and then it proposed the way forward to stakeholders on how to make Kenya more competitive at national, regional and international levels. The methodology employed in this cross-sectional study, was essentially descriptive and comparative. Kenya’s scores and rankings in the Global Competitiveness Report and the World Bank doing business report were compared with other countries in East Africa region and the leading ones to arrive at the study findings. The study used secondary data exclusively. Since the diamond elements are not directly measured, this dissertation proposed and used some proxy factors to indicate the scores on the diamond as follows. These are :- 1. Factors conditions comprising of the pillars on infrastructure, Health and Primary Education and the Labour market efficiency 2. Demand conditions comprising of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), pillars on Higher Education and Training , technological readiness and market size. 3. Related and supporting industry comprising pillars on Financial Market sophistication and business sophistication ; and 4. Context of Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry comprising pillars on Market efficiency and Innovation Following the analysis, twelve challenges and five opportunities were identified and a national agenda proposed to boost competitiveness. From the study, Kenya was deemed competitive regionally but not internationally. Further, the study shows that the Kenya private sector is competitively ranked regionally, but that the public sector is unfavourably ranked. Even though competitiveness can only be fully realized in synergy and cooperation between public and private sector players, yet it can be argued that in Kenya’s case, the step-change in gain towards competitiveness lies first and foremost in comprehensive public sector reforms then an acceleration of public and private sector cooperation. The governments’ Vision 2030 recognizes this fact and implementation is already ongoing. In driving competitiveness Kenya must seek to work with other neighbouring countries to tap into joint regional advantages such as the growing economies, large market potential and the continuing oil exploration and production efforts, which have yielded oil and gas finds. Kenya on her part, has intensified her oil exploration programme but should similarly dedicate more resources to research and development of alternative fuels technology notably bio-fuels that would easily be blended with fossil fuels. This would reduce dependence on foreign oil and reduce the shock on the Kenyan economy whenever there are wild swings in global prices of crude oil. The main study limitations were identified and future areas of research to build on it were proposed. The details of the research are discussed in this report.
- ItemAn Exploratory study of professional development of SME employees(Strathmore University, 2009) Githendu, Caroline N.There has been an explosive interest in SMEs growth coming from the fact that SMEs are a major source of new employment. In Kenya, this interest has been from financing to capacity development – provision of building development services – of the businesses. Most major banks have strategies to grow their SME and micro business portfolio. The IFC, the private arm of the World Bank, has instituted an SME Solutions Centre. The Ministry of Trade has instituted a business training programme for SME owners as have other government ministries. Many private sector institutions have also developed programmes for the enhancement of SMEs. The SME sector in Kenya is still heavily under-researched, despite many studies being done. This study targeted 100 SME owner managers of SMEs based in Nairobi and their investment towards the development and training of their employees. The study was an exploratory study which sought to answer the following questions: do SME owners train their staff, to what extent the training is planned for and what the extent of the owners of SME’s awareness of training services availed by SME Capacity Building Institutions is. The study looked at the subject through the lens of the educational status of both the employees and the SME owners. The study found that the majority of SME owners do not train their staff. The majority of SME managers do not plan for training in their businesses and yet the study found that planning for training as part of business strategy will positively affect the incidence of training. While many managers are aware of cheap or free training services available in the market, they do not make use of them. The educational level of the manager does not affect the occurrence of planning for training in the SME firm. The educational level of the employees does not affect demand for training in the SME firm. An SME was considered as an establishment with a permanent set-up operating from the same place every day, and having between 2-30 employees.
- ItemCorporate governance in Kenya : regulatory compliance or strategic performance?(Strathmore University, 2009) Musembi, Nelly N.There previously has been a drive to more tightly regulate the membership and functions of corporate boards thereby encouraging companies to view governance as a checklist mechanism rather than a way to improve performance. This reduction of the critically important issues of corporate governance to what amounts toa box-checking exercise, means that corporate directors and senior executives are addressing teh symptoms and not the root cause of governance concerns. Reforms to the behaviours, relationships and objectives of the directors and the executives are meaningless unless they are subjected to the critical mechanisms of performance criteria, processes and measurements. The current global economic crisis also requires that boards are prepared in large measure to be completely engaged in strategy, and not just serve as an independent advisory council. This dissertation is a qualitative research which seeks to understand whether a compliant approach to governance guidelines creates a high performance company. From the findings, the paper will subsequently present strategic measures that can be taken by board in an effort to k keep them ore engaged in the company’s business strategy.
- ItemExploratory study of new housing finance in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Ochieng', Vincent MichaelThis dissertation is an exploratory study of new housing finance in Kenya which is viewed as ‘risky’ and is largely avoided by financial institutions. This is against the background of a housing industry where 80% of the houses are constructed as opposed to purchased. The study is justified by the fact that Kenya suffers from a problem of inadequate housing with approximately 60% of the urban population living in slum settlements. The main objective is to understand how banks in Kenya handle the risk associated with new housing lending and the building process within it. A comprehensive literature review section of the dissertation surveys relevant theories around the topic of housing finance, risk and the building process. The literature review demonstrates that overall, new housing finance is faced by challenges of quantifying and mitigating risk. Three leading new housing lenders were studied and compared focusing on how they assess and make decisions to lend and how they manage the risk of the construction process. The methodology involved is case study based and descriptive. The dissertation concludes that banks can successfully mitigate risk associated with new housing lending and succeed in it by such actions as securing of long term finance and working closely with construction professionals. The study has implications for the government which needs to institute reforms to improve the finance sector and for the building industry in general, which will better play their role in risk mitigation. The dissertation recommends further research on other forms of new housing finance such as housing micro-finance.
- ItemGender influence on the adoption of family - friendly policies by businesses in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Wahome, Rose W.A woman’s career faces many challenges especially if she is married due to the numerous demands on her as a wife and mother. In traditional society, the man was the sole bread winner for the family. Women were socialized as home-makers whose chores revolved around the family and bringing up children. However, the 20th century, there was a dramatic shift in the workforce that saw many women take up employment to supplement their families’ income. Since then, there has been an upward trend in the number of women seeking college education and joining the workforce. There is evidence that women have talents and skills that contribute positively to business performance previous studies reveal that firms with a majority of women on board of directors, experience higher financial performance. Recently, women have been rising to the top echelons of business management without having to sacrifice their families’ well being due to the implementation of family-friendly policies (FFPs). These policies include parental leave, flexi time and working from home. More firms appreciate the need for diversity in the business arena and are advocating for family friendly policies that allow women to lead business as they raise their families. When women receive support from their families (spouses) and business firms, they are able to manage both responsibilities. However, the adoption of family friendly policies in firms remains a controversial issue as some schools of though argue that the implementation of such policies will harm the bottom line. The study presupposes that women Human Resource (HR) managers have a stronger positive influence on the adoption of family-friendly policies as they understand their fellow women’s challenges better. However, the results indicate that the gender of the Human Resource Manager does not play a significant role in the adoption of Family Friendly policies. Rather, it is the involvement of the women within the organization in coming up with ways to reduce the impact of family friendly policies on the bottom line.
- ItemAnalysis of shariah compliant banking in Kenya(Strathmore University, 2009) Mohamed, Fatuma HirsiThe study conducted an analysis of Shariah compliant banking in Kenya. It employs a quantitative approach in order to determine the perception, use and willingness of respondents to take up Shariah compliant banking. The principle objective of the study was to determine the banks that offer shariah compliant banking products should target the general public (both Muslims and non-Muslims) or just the niche Muslim market because of their faith (Muslims only). From the findings, indeed a majority of the respondents, 73%, fully assert the shariah compliant banking should target the general public giving various reasons to support the assertion. The Muslim respondents affirm that Islam is a way of life for them and hence shariah compliant should be considered as a way of life for Muslims. The Non-Muslims assert that deposits are collected in other banks and non Bank Financial Institutions (NBFIs) irrespective of whether one is a Muslim or not and hence the same basic principles should apply to all Kenyans irrespective of religion. A key recommendation to the banks offering shariah compliant banking products is to raise to the challenge and marshal resources to focus on both the niche Muslim market and the general public at large. This report presents the findings from the study.