Browsing by Author "Kokwaro, G."
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- ItemCharacterisation of metabolic acidosis in Kenyan children admitted to hospital for acute non-surgical conditions(Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ) Sasi, P; English, M; Berkley, J.; Lowe, B.; Shebe, M.; Mwakesi, R.; Kokwaro, G.Metabolic acidosis is associated with most severe malaria deaths in African children, and most deaths occur before maximum antimalarial action is achieved. Thus, specific acidosis treatment may reduce mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and no specific interventions have been developed. A detailed characterisation of this acidosis is critical in treatment development. We used the traditional and Stewart’s approach to characterise acidosis in consecutive paediatric admissions for malaria and other acute non-surgical conditions to Kilifi District Hospital in Kenya. The overall acidosis prevalence was 21%. Gastroenteritis had the highest prevalence (61%). Both the mean albumin-corrected anion gap and the strong ion gap were high (>13 mmol/l and >0 mmol/l, respectively) in malaria, gastroenteritis, lower respiratory tract infection and malnutrition. Presence of salicylate in plasma was not associated with acidosis but was associated with signs of severe illness (odds ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.1–4.2). In malaria, mean (95% CI) strong ion gap was 15 (14–7) mmol/l, and lactate, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous explained only approximately 40% of the variability in base excess (adjusted R2 = 0.397). Acidosis may be more common than previously recognised amongst paediatric admissions in Africa and is characterised by the presence of currently unidentified strong anions. In malaria, lactate and ketones, but not salicylate, are associated with acidosis. However, unidentified anions may be more important.
- ItemChloramphenicol Pharmacokinetics in African children with severe malaria(Journal of tropical pediatrics, ) Kokwaro, G.; Muchohi, Simon N.; Ogutu, Benhards R.; Newton, Charles RJC
- ItemDetermination of ciprofloxacin in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection: Application to a population pharmacokinetics study in children with severe malnutrition(Journal of Chromatography B, ) Kokwaro, G.; Muchohi, Simon N.; Thuo, Nahashon; Karisa, Japhet; Muturi, Alex; Maitland, KathrynClinical pharmacokinetic studies of ciprofloxacin require accurate and precise measurement of plasma drug concentrations. We describe a rapid, selective and sensitive HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection for determination of ciprofloxacin in human plasma. Internal standard (IS; sarafloxacin) was added to plasma aliquots (200uL) prior to protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Ciprofloxacin and IS were eluted on a Synergi Max-RP analytical column (150mm×4.6mm i.d., 5um particle size) maintained at 40 ◦C. The mobile phase comprised a mixture of aqueous orthophosphoric acid (0.025 M)/methanol/acetonitrile (75/13/12%, v/v/v); the pH was adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine. A fluorescence detector (excitation/emission wavelength of 278/450 nm) was used. Retention times for ciprofloxacin and IS were approximately 3.6 and 7.0 min, respectively. Calibration curves of ciprofloxacin were linear over the concentration range of 0.02–4ug/mL, with correlation coefficients (r2)≥0.998. Intraand inter-assay relative standard deviations (SD) were <8.0% and accuracy values ranged from 93% to 105% for quality control samples (0.2, 1.8 and 3.6ug/mL). The mean (SD) extraction recoveries for ciprofloxacin from spiked plasma at 0.08, 1.8 and 3.6ug/mL were 72.8±12.5% (n = 5), 83.5±5.2% and 77.7±2.0%, respectively (n = 8 in both cases). The recovery for IS was 94.5±7.9% (n = 15). The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was stable in plasma for at least one month when stored at −15 ◦C to −25 ◦C and −70 ◦C to −90 ◦C. This method was successfully applied to measure plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations in a population pharmacokinetics study of ciprofloxacin in malnourished children.
- ItemOnce-daily combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria: is this the way forward?(Clinical Infectious Diseases, ) Kokwaro, G.
- ItemPopulation pharmacokinetics of a single daily intramuscular dose of gentamicin in children with severe malnutrition(Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ) Kokwaro, G.; Seaton, Claire; Ignas, James; Muchohi, Simon N.; Maitland, Kathryn; Thomson, AlisonObjectives: The World Health Organization recommends that all children admitted with severe malnutrition should routinely receive parenteral ampicillin and gentamicin; despite this, mortality remains high. Since this population group is at risk of altered volume of distribution, we aimed to study the population pharmacokinetics of once daily gentamicin (7.5 mg/kg) in children with severe malnutrition and to evaluate clinical factors affecting pharmacokinetic parameters. Methods: Thirty-four children aged 0.5–10 years were studied. One hundred and thirty-two gentamicin concentrations (median of four per patient), drawn 0.4–24.6 h after administration of the intramuscular dose, were analysed. The data were fitted by a two-compartment model using the population package NONMEMw. Results: Gentamicin was rapidly absorbed and all concentrations measured within the first 2 h after administration were >8 mg/L (indicating that satisfactory peak concentrations were achieved). Ninetyeight percent of samples measured more than 20 h after the dose were <1 mg/L. The best model included weight, and it was found that high base deficit, high creatinine concentration and low temperature (all markers of hypovolaemic shock) reduced clearance (CL/F). Weight influenced volume of the central (V1/F) and peripheral (V2/F) compartments, and high base deficit reduced V2/F and intercompartmental CL (Q/F). Interindividual variability in CL was 26%, in V1/F 33% and in V2/F and Q/F was 52%. Individual estimates of CL/F ranged from 0.02 to 0.16 (median 0.10) L/h/kg and those of Vss/F from 0.26 to 1.31 (median 0.67) L/kg. Initial half-lives had a median of 1.4 h and elimination half-lives and a median of 14.9 h. Excessive concentrations were observed in one patient who had signs of renal impairment and shock. Conclusions: Although a daily dose of 7.5 mg/kg achieves satisfactory gentamicin concentrations in the majority of patients, patients with renal impairment and shock may be at risk of accumulation with 24 hourly dosing. Further studies of gentamicin pharmacokinetics in this group are now needed to inform future international guideline recommendations.